1GIT-PULL(1)                       Git Manual                       GIT-PULL(1)


6       git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local
7       branch


10       git pull [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


14       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current branch.
15       In its default mode, git pull is shorthand for git fetch followed by
16       git merge FETCH_HEAD.
18       More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters and
19       calls git merge to merge the retrieved branch heads into the current
20       branch. With --rebase, it runs git rebase instead of git merge.
22       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed to
23       git-fetch(1). <refspec> can name an arbitrary remote ref (for example,
24       the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with corresponding
25       remote-tracking branches (e.g., refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*),
26       but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.
28       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the "remote"
29       and "merge" configuration for the current branch as set by git-
30       branch(1) --track.
32       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":
34                     A---B---C master on origin
35                    /
36               D---E---F---G master
37                   ^
38                   origin/master in your repository
41       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
42       master branch since it diverged from the local master (i.e., E) until
43       its current commit (C) on top of master and record the result in a new
44       commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message
45       from the user describing the changes.
47                     A---B---C origin/master
48                    /         \
49               D---E---F---G---H master
52       See git-merge(1) for details, including how conflicts are presented and
53       handled.
55       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git reset
56       --merge. Warning: In older versions of Git, running git pull with
57       uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a
58       state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
60       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
61       the merge will be automatically canceled and the work tree untouched.
62       It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
63       pulling or stash them away with git-stash(1).


66       -q, --quiet
67           This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of
68           during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during
69           merging.
71       -v, --verbose
72           Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.
74       --[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]
75           This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules
76           should be fetched and updated, too (see git-config(1) and
77           gitmodules(5)).
79           If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are
80           rebased as well.
82           If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are
83           resolved and checked out.
85   Options related to merging
86       --commit, --no-commit
87           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to
88           override --no-commit.
90           With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and
91           do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and further
92           tweak the merge result before committing.
94       --edit, -e, --no-edit
95           Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
96           further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user can
97           explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be used to
98           accept the auto-generated message (this is generally discouraged).
100           Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not
101           allowing the user to edit the merge log message. They will see an
102           editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to adjust
103           such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment variable
104           GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of them.
106       --ff
107           When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch
108           pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default
109           behavior.
111       --no-ff
112           Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
113           fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
114           annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in its
115           natural place in refs/tags/ hierarchy.
117       --ff-only
118           Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current
119           HEAD is already up to date or the merge can be resolved as a
120           fast-forward.
122       -S[<keyid>], --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]
123           GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The keyid argument is optional
124           and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
125           stuck to the option without a space.
127       --log[=<n>], --no-log
128           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line
129           descriptions from at most <n> actual commits that are being merged.
130           See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).
132           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual
133           commits being merged.
135       --signoff, --no-signoff
136           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
137           log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project, but
138           it typically certifies that committer has the rights to submit this
139           work under the same license and agrees to a Developer Certificate
140           of Origin (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more
141           information).
143           With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.
145       --stat, -n, --no-stat
146           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
147           controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.
149           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the
150           merge.
152       --squash, --no-squash
153           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
154           happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually
155           make a commit, move the HEAD, or record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to
156           cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit). This
157           allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch
158           whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in case
159           of an octopus).
161           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This
162           option can be used to override --squash.
164       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
165           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to
166           specify them in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
167           option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
168           merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus
169           otherwise).
171       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
172           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge strategy.
174       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
175           Verify that the tip commit of the side branch being merged is
176           signed with a valid key, i.e. a key that has a valid uid: in the
177           default trust model, this means the signing key has been signed by
178           a trusted key. If the tip commit of the side branch is not signed
179           with a valid key, the merge is aborted.
181       --summary, --no-summary
182           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be
183           removed in the future.
185       --allow-unrelated-histories
186           By default, git merge command refuses to merge histories that do
187           not share a common ancestor. This option can be used to override
188           this safety when merging histories of two projects that started
189           their lives independently. As that is a very rare occasion, no
190           configuration variable to enable this by default exists and will
191           not be added.
193       -r, --rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]
194           When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch
195           after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding
196           to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since
197           last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing
198           non-local changes.
200           When set to merges, rebase using git rebase --rebase-merges so that
201           the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see git-
202           rebase(1) for details).
204           When set to preserve, rebase with the --preserve-merges option
205           passed to git rebase so that locally created merge commits will not
206           be flattened.
208           When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.
210           When interactive, enable the interactive mode of rebase.
212           See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autoSetupRebase in
213           git-config(1) if you want to make git pull always use --rebase
214           instead of merging.
216               Note
217               This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites
218               history, which does not bode well when you published that
219               history already. Do not use this option unless you have read
220               git-rebase(1) carefully.
222       --no-rebase
223           Override earlier --rebase.
225       --autostash, --no-autostash
226           Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see git-
227           stash(1)) if needed, and apply the stash entry when done.
228           --no-autostash is useful to override the rebase.autoStash
229           configuration variable (see git-config(1)).
231           This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
233   Options related to fetching
234       --all
235           Fetch all remotes.
237       -a, --append
238           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing
239           contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in
240           .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.
242       --depth=<depth>
243           Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
244           each remote branch history. If fetching to a shallow repository
245           created by git clone with --depth=<depth> option (see git-
246           clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified number of
247           commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
249       --deepen=<depth>
250           Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits from
251           the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of each remote
252           branch history.
254       --shallow-since=<date>
255           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to include
256           all reachable commits after <date>.
258       --shallow-exclude=<revision>
259           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to exclude
260           commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This
261           option can be specified multiple times.
263       --unshallow
264           If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository
265           to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow
266           repositories.
268           If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so
269           that the current repository has the same history as the source
270           repository.
272       --update-shallow
273           By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
274           refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option
275           updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.
277       -f, --force
278           When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses
279           to update the local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch
280           <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option
281           overrides that check.
283       -k, --keep
284           Keep downloaded pack.
286       --no-tags
287           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
288           remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
289           disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
290           remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See
291           git-config(1).
293       -u, --update-head-ok
294           By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds
295           to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely
296           for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git fetch,
297           and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not
298           supposed to use it.
300       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
301           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git
302           fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
303           specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.
305       --progress
306           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
307           when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
308           flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
309           not directed to a terminal.
311       -o <option>, --server-option=<option>
312           Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
313           protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
314           character. When multiple --server-option=<option> are given, they
315           are all sent to the other side in the order listed on the command
316           line.
318       -4, --ipv4
319           Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
321       -6, --ipv6
322           Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.
324       <repository>
325           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
326           operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
327           URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES
328           below).
330       <refspec>
331           Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update. When
332           no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to fetch are
333           read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables instead (see git-
334           fetch(1)).
336           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
337           by the source <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
338           destination ref <dst>. The colon can be omitted when <dst> is
339           empty. <src> is typically a ref, but it can also be a fully spelled
340           hex object name.
342           tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it
343           requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
345           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not
346           empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using
347           <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is updated
348           even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.
350               Note
351               When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be rewound
352               and rebased regularly, it is expected that its new tip will not
353               be descendant of its previous tip (as stored in your
354               remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You would
355               want to use the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates
356               will be needed for such branches. There is no way to determine
357               or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository
358               with this behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is
359               the expected usage pattern for a branch.
361               Note
362               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
363               directly on git pull command line and having multiple
364               remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your configuration for a
365               <repository> and running a git pull command without any
366               explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec>s listed explicitly on
367               the command line are always merged into the current branch
368               after fetching. In other words, if you list more than one
369               remote ref, git pull will create an Octopus merge. On the other
370               hand, if you do not list any explicit <refspec> parameter on
371               the command line, git pull will fetch all the <refspec>s it
372               finds in the remote.<repository>.fetch configuration and merge
373               only the first <refspec> found into the current branch. This is
374               because making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done,
375               while keeping track of multiple remote heads in one-go by
376               fetching more than one is often useful.


379       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
380       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
381       on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.
383       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
384       ftps can be used for fetching, but this is inefficient and deprecated;
385       do not use it).
387       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
388       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.
390       The following syntaxes may be used with them:
392       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
394       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
396       ·   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
398       ·   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/
400       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:
402       ·   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/
404       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
405       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
406       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
407       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.
409       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:
411       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/
413       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/
415       ·   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/
417       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
418       syntaxes may be used:
420       ·   /path/to/repo.git/
422       ·   file:///path/to/repo.git/
424       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
425       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.
427       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
428       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
429       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:
431       ·   <transport>::<address>
433       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
434       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
435       See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.
437       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
438       you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
439       will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
440       section of the form:
442                   [url "<actual url base>"]
443                           insteadOf = <other url base>
446       For example, with this:
448                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
449                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
450                           insteadOf = work:
453       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
454       rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be
455       "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".
457       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
458       configuration section of the form:
460                   [url "<actual url base>"]
461                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
464       For example, with this:
466                   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
467                           pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
470       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
471       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
472       use the original URL.


475       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
476       <repository> argument:
478       ·   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
480       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
482       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
484       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
485       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.
487   Named remote in configuration file
488       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
489       configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
490       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
491       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
492       default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
493       entry in the config file would appear like this:
495                   [remote "<name>"]
496                           url = <url>
497                           pushurl = <pushurl>
498                           push = <refspec>
499                           fetch = <refspec>
502       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to
503       <url>.
505   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
506       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
507       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
508       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
509       the command line. This file should have the following format:
511                   URL: one of the above URL format
512                   Push: <refspec>
513                   Pull: <refspec>
516       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
517       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
518       additional branch mappings.
520   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
521       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
522       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
523       should have the following format:
525                   <url>#<head>
528       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.
530       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
531       if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
532       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.
534       git fetch uses:
536                   refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>
539       git push uses:
541                   HEAD:refs/heads/<head>


545       The merge mechanism (git merge and git pull commands) allows the
546       backend merge strategies to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
547       can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving
548       -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or git pull.
550       resolve
551           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
552           another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
553           tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
554           considered generally safe and fast.
556       recursive
557           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When
558           there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way
559           merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses
560           that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
561           reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
562           mismerges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
563           2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
564           handle merges involving renames, but currently cannot make use of
565           detected copies. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or
566           merging one branch.
568           The recursive strategy can take the following options:
570           ours
571               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
572               cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other tree
573               that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge
574               result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from
575               our side.
577               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which
578               does not even look at what the other tree contains at all. It
579               discards everything the other tree did, declaring our history
580               contains all that happened in it.
582           theirs
583               This is the opposite of ours; note that, unlike ours, there is
584               no theirs merge strategy to confuse this merge option with.
586           patience
587               With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to
588               avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due to unimportant
589               matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use this
590               when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also
591               git-diff(1) --patience.
593           diff-algorithm=[patience|minimal|histogram|myers]
594               Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm, which
595               can help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant matching
596               lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also git-
597               diff(1) --diff-algorithm.
599           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol,
600           ignore-cr-at-eol
601               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
602               unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes
603               mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored. See also
604               git-diff(1) -b, -w, --ignore-space-at-eol, and
605               --ignore-cr-at-eol.
607               ·   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
608                   line, our version is used;
610               ·   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their
611                   version includes a substantial change, their version is
612                   used;
614               ·   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.
616           renormalize
617               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages
618               of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This option is
619               meant to be used when merging branches with different clean
620               filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
621               branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in
622               gitattributes(5) for details.
624           no-renormalize
625               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the
626               merge.renormalize configuration variable.
628           no-renames
629               Turn off rename detection. This overrides the merge.renames
630               configuration variable. See also git-diff(1) --no-renames.
632           find-renames[=<n>]
633               Turn on rename detection, optionally setting the similarity
634               threshold. This is the default. This overrides the
635               merge.renames configuration variable. See also git-diff(1)
636               --find-renames.
638           rename-threshold=<n>
639               Deprecated synonym for find-renames=<n>.
641           subtree[=<path>]
642               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where
643               the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be shifted to
644               match with each other when merging. Instead, the specified path
645               is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make the shape
646               of two trees to match.
648       octopus
649           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a
650           complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
651           to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the
652           default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one
653           branch.
655       ours
656           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the
657           merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively
658           ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be
659           used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
660           that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive
661           merge strategy.
663       subtree
664           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B,
665           if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match
666           the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the same
667           level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.
669       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default,
670       recursive), if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted on
671       one of the branches, that change will be present in the merged result;
672       some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because only the
673       heads and the merge base are considered when performing a merge, not
674       the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore considers the
675       reverted change as no change at all, and substitutes the changed
676       version instead.


679       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter. Traditionally,
680       this has been equivalent to saying git pull origin. However, when
681       configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on branch <name>,
682       that value is used instead of origin.
684       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the
685       configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any
686       such variable, the value on the URL: line in $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>
687       is used.
689       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally
690       store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is run without
691       any refspec parameters on the command line, values of the configuration
692       variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there aren’t any,
693       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> is consulted and its Pull: lines are used. In
694       addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS section, you
695       can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:
697           refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
700       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what were
701       fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with
702       /*. The above specifies that all remote branches are tracked using
703       remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy under the
704       same name.
706       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is a
707       bit involved, in order not to break backward compatibility.
709       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they
710       are all merged.
712       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the
713       refspec from the configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such
714       cases, the following rules apply:
716        1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name>
717           exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote site that is
718           merged.
720        2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
722        3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.


725       ·   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned
726           from, then merge one of them into your current branch:
728               $ git pull
729               $ git pull origin
731           Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
732           but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
733           branch.<name>.merge options; see git-config(1) for details.
735       ·   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:
737               $ git pull origin next
739           This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not
740           update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
741           branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
743               $ git fetch origin
744               $ git merge origin/next
747       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would want
748       to start over, you can recover with git reset.


751       The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side from
752       stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to be
753       shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a
754       malicious peer, your best option is to store it in another repository.
755       This applies to both clients and servers. In particular, namespaces on
756       a server are not effective for read access control; you should only
757       grant read access to a namespace to clients that you would trust with
758       read access to the entire repository.
760       The known attack vectors are as follows:
762        1. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has
763           that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to
764           optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker
765           chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn’t
766           required to send the content of X because the victim already has
767           it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends
768           the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most
769           straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating a
770           ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then
771           fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a
772           client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user
773           does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the
774           server without noticing the merge.)
776        2. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim
777           sends an object Y that the attacker already has, and the attacker
778           falsely claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends Y as a
779           delta against X. The delta reveals regions of X that are similar to
780           Y to the attacker.


783       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already
784       checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new
785       submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule
786       itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that
787       submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to
788       be fixed in a future Git version.


791       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)


794       Part of the git(1) suite
798Git 2.18.1                        05/14/2019                       GIT-PULL(1)