1GIT-REV-PARSE(1)                  Git Manual                  GIT-REV-PARSE(1)


6       git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters


9       git rev-parse [<options>] <args>...


13       Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags (i.e. parameters
14       that begin with a dash -) and parameters meant for the underlying git
15       rev-list command they use internally and flags and parameters for the
16       other commands they use downstream of git rev-list. This command is
17       used to distinguish between them.


20   Operation Modes
21       Each of these options must appear first on the command line.
23       --parseopt
24           Use git rev-parse in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section
25           below).
27       --sq-quote
28           Use git rev-parse in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE section
29           below). In contrast to the --sq option below, this mode does only
30           quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
32   Options for --parseopt
33       --keep-dashdash
34           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Tells the option parser to echo
35           out the first -- met instead of skipping it.
37       --stop-at-non-option
38           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Lets the option parser stop at
39           the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse
40           sub-commands that take options themselves.
42       --stuck-long
43           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Output the options in their
44           long form if available, and with their arguments stuck.
46   Options for Filtering
47       --revs-only
48           Do not output flags and parameters not meant for git rev-list
49           command.
51       --no-revs
52           Do not output flags and parameters meant for git rev-list command.
54       --flags
55           Do not output non-flag parameters.
57       --no-flags
58           Do not output flag parameters.
60   Options for Output
61       --default <arg>
62           If there is no parameter given by the user, use <arg> instead.
64       --prefix <arg>
65           Behave as if git rev-parse was invoked from the <arg> subdirectory
66           of the working tree. Any relative filenames are resolved as if they
67           are prefixed by <arg> and will be printed in that form.
69           This can be used to convert arguments to a command run in a
70           subdirectory so that they can still be used after moving to the
71           top-level of the repository. For example:
73               prefix=$(git rev-parse --show-prefix)
74               cd "$(git rev-parse --show-toplevel)"
75               # rev-parse provides the -- needed for 'set'
76               eval "set $(git rev-parse --sq --prefix "$prefix" -- "$@")"
79       --verify
80           Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it can be
81           turned into a raw 20-byte SHA-1 that can be used to access the
82           object database. If so, emit it to the standard output; otherwise,
83           error out.
85           If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object
86           in your object database and/or can be used as a specific type of
87           object you require, you can add the ^{type} peeling operator to the
88           parameter. For example, git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}" will make
89           sure $VAR names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a
90           commit, or an annotated tag that points at a commit). To make sure
91           that $VAR names an existing object of any type, git rev-parse
92           "$VAR^{object}" can be used.
94       -q, --quiet
95           Only meaningful in --verify mode. Do not output an error message if
96           the first argument is not a valid object name; instead exit with
97           non-zero status silently. SHA-1s for valid object names are printed
98           to stdout on success.
100       --sq
101           Usually the output is made one line per flag and parameter. This
102           option makes output a single line, properly quoted for consumption
103           by shell. Useful when you expect your parameter to contain
104           whitespaces and newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe -S with git
105           diff-*). In contrast to the --sq-quote option, the command input is
106           still interpreted as usual.
108       --short[=length]
109           Same as --verify but shortens the object name to a unique prefix
110           with at least length characters. The minimum length is 4, the
111           default is the effective value of the core.abbrev configuration
112           variable (see git-config(1)).
114       --not
115           When showing object names, prefix them with ^ and strip ^ prefix
116           from the object names that already have one.
118       --abbrev-ref[=(strict|loose)]
119           A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name. The option
120           core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict abbreviation
121           mode.
123       --symbolic
124           Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with possible ^
125           prefix); this option makes them output in a form as close to the
126           original input as possible.
128       --symbolic-full-name
129           This is similar to --symbolic, but it omits input that are not refs
130           (i.e. branch or tag names; or more explicitly disambiguating
131           "heads/master" form, when you want to name the "master" branch when
132           there is an unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as
133           full refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").
135   Options for Objects
136       --all
137           Show all refs found in refs/.
139       --branches[=pattern], --tags[=pattern], --remotes[=pattern]
140           Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches, respectively
141           (i.e., refs found in refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes,
142           respectively).
144           If a pattern is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are
145           shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *,
146           or [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.
148       --glob=pattern
149           Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern pattern. If the
150           pattern does not start with refs/, this is automatically prepended.
151           If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *, or [),
152           it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.
154       --exclude=<glob-pattern>
155           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
156           --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
157           Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
158           next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
159           options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).
161           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
162           refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
163           respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
164           or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given
165           explicitly.
167       --disambiguate=<prefix>
168           Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix. The
169           <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to avoid
170           listing each and every object in the repository by mistake.
172   Options for Files
173       --local-env-vars
174           List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
175           repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
176           Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value, even
177           if they are set.
179       --git-dir
180           Show $GIT_DIR if defined. Otherwise show the path to the .git
181           directory. The path shown, when relative, is relative to the
182           current working directory.
184           If $GIT_DIR is not defined and the current directory is not
185           detected to lie in a Git repository or work tree print a message to
186           stderr and exit with nonzero status.
188       --absolute-git-dir
189           Like --git-dir, but its output is always the canonicalized absolute
190           path.
192       --git-common-dir
193           Show $GIT_COMMON_DIR if defined, else $GIT_DIR.
195       --is-inside-git-dir
196           When the current working directory is below the repository
197           directory print "true", otherwise "false".
199       --is-inside-work-tree
200           When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the
201           repository print "true", otherwise "false".
203       --is-bare-repository
204           When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
206       --is-shallow-repository
207           When the repository is shallow print "true", otherwise "false".
209       --resolve-git-dir <path>
210           Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that points at a
211           valid repository, and print the location of the repository. If
212           <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path to the real repository
213           is printed.
215       --git-path <path>
216           Resolve "$GIT_DIR/<path>" and takes other path relocation variables
217           such as $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY, $GIT_INDEX_FILE... into account. For
218           example, if $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY is set to /foo/bar then "git
219           rev-parse --git-path objects/abc" returns /foo/bar/abc.
221       --show-cdup
222           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of
223           the top-level directory relative to the current directory
224           (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
226       --show-prefix
227           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of
228           the current directory relative to the top-level directory.
230       --show-toplevel
231           Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
233       --show-superproject-working-tree
234           Show the absolute path of the root of the superproject’s working
235           tree (if exists) that uses the current repository as its submodule.
236           Outputs nothing if the current repository is not used as a
237           submodule by any project.
239       --shared-index-path
240           Show the path to the shared index file in split index mode, or
241           empty if not in split-index mode.
243   Other Options
244       --since=datestring, --after=datestring
245           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --max-age=
246           parameter for git rev-list.
248       --until=datestring, --before=datestring
249           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --min-age=
250           parameter for git rev-list.
252       <args>...
253           Flags and parameters to be parsed.


256       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
257       commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here
258       are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
259       this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.
261           Note
262           This document shows the "raw" syntax as seen by git. The shell and
263           other UIs might require additional quoting to protect special
264           characters and to avoid word splitting.
266       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
267           The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
268           leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
269           dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
270           same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
271           whose object name starts with dae86e.
273       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
274           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
275           by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
276           abbreviated object name.
278       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
279           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
280           referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
281           heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
282           to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <refname> is
283           disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:
285            1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is
286               usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
287               and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);
289            2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;
291            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;
293            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;
295            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;
297            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.
299               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the
300               working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched
301               from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.
302               ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a
303               drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their
304               operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch
305               back to the state before you ran them.  MERGE_HEAD records the
306               commit(s) which you are merging into your branch when you run
307               git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
308               cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.
310               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
311               the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
312               file. While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
313               preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in
314               UTF-8.
316       @
317           @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.
319       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
320           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
321           in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
322           1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
323           ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
324           immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
325           log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
326           your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
327           branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
328           certain times, see --since and --until.
330       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
331           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
332           enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior
333           value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
334           value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
335           This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and
336           the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).
338       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
339           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
340           reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
341           branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.
343       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
344           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
345           before the current one.
347       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
348           The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form
349           <branchname>@{u}) refers to the branch that the branch specified by
350           branchname is set to build on top of (configured with
351           branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge). A missing branchname
352           defaults to the current one. These suffixes are also accepted when
353           spelled in uppercase, and they mean the same thing no matter the
354           case.
356       <branchname>@{push}, e.g. master@{push}, @{push}
357           The suffix @{push} reports the branch "where we would push to" if
358           git push were run while branchname was checked out (or the current
359           HEAD if no branchname is specified). Since our push destination is
360           in a remote repository, of course, we report the local tracking
361           branch that corresponds to that branch (i.e., something in
362           refs/remotes/).
364           Here’s an example to make it more clear:
366               $ git config push.default current
367               $ git config remote.pushdefault myfork
368               $ git checkout -b mybranch origin/master
370               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{upstream}
371               refs/remotes/origin/master
373               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{push}
374               refs/remotes/myfork/mybranch
376           Note in the example that we set up a triangular workflow, where we
377           pull from one location and push to another. In a non-triangular
378           workflow, @{push} is the same as @{upstream}, and there is no need
379           for it.
381           This suffix is also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and means
382           the same thing no matter the case.
384       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
385           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
386           commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
387           equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit
388           itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object
389           that refers to a commit object.
391       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
392           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
393           is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named commit object,
394           following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
395           <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
396           illustration of the usage of this form.
398       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
399           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
400           means dereference the object at <rev> recursively until an object
401           of type <type> is found or the object cannot be dereferenced
402           anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
403           commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit
404           object. Similarly, if <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes
405           the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is a short-hand for
406           <rev>^{commit}.
408           rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that
409           exists, without requiring rev to be a tag, and without
410           dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an object, it does not
411           have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.
413           rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing tag
414           object.
416       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
417           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could
418           be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
419           object is found.
421       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
422           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that
423           contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug
424           syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching commit
425           which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.
427       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
428           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
429           whose commit message matches the specified regular expression. This
430           name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
431           any ref. The regular expression can match any part of the commit
432           message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use e.g.
433           :/^foo. The special sequence :/!  is reserved for modifiers to what
434           is matched.  :/!-foo performs a negative match, while :/!!foo
435           matches a literal !  character, followed by foo. Any other sequence
436           beginning with :/!  is reserved for now. Depending on the given
437           text, the shell’s word splitting rules might require additional
438           quoting.
440       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
441           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
442           path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
443           :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
444           the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
445           given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
446           current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
447           relative to the working tree’s root directory. This is most useful
448           to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same
449           tree structure as the working tree.
451       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
452           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
453           colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at the
454           given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
455           names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
456           ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch’s version (typically the
457           current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
458           is being merged.
460       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
461       parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.
463           G   H   I   J
464            \ /     \ /
465             D   E   F
466              \  |  / \
467               \ | /   |
468                \|/    |
469                 B     C
470                  \   /
471                   \ /
472                    A
474           A =      = A^0
475           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
476           C = A^2  = A^2
477           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
478           E = B^2  = A^^2
479           F = B^3  = A^^3
480           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
481           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
482           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
483           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2


486       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
487       commits, not just a single commit.
489       For these commands, specifying a single revision, using the notation
490       described in the previous section, means the set of commits reachable
491       from the given commit.
493       A commit’s reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in its
494       ancestry chain.
496   Commit Exclusions
497       ^<rev> (caret) Notation
498           To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is
499           used. E.g.  ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the
500           ones reachable from r1 (i.e.  r1 and its ancestors).
502   Dotted Range Notations
503       The .. (two-dot) Range Notation
504           The ^r1 r2 set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
505           for it. When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the
506           syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for
507           commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are
508           reachable from r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.
510       The ... (three-dot) Symmetric Difference Notation
511           A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and
512           r2 and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It
513           is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1
514           (left side) or r2 (right side) but not from both.
516       In these two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it
517       default to HEAD. For example, origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD
518       and asks "What did I do since I forked from the origin branch?"
519       Similarly, ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did
520       the origin do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would mean
521       HEAD..HEAD which is an empty range that is both reachable and
522       unreachable from HEAD.
524   Other <rev>^ Parent Shorthand Notations
525       Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
526       for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits.
528       The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
530       The r1^! notation includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.
531       By itself, this notation denotes the single commit r1.
533       The <rev>^-<n> notation includes <rev> but excludes the <n>th parent
534       (i.e. a shorthand for <rev>^<n>..<rev>), with <n> = 1 if not given.
535       This is typically useful for merge commits where you can just pass
536       <commit>^- to get all the commits in the branch that was merged in
537       merge commit <commit> (including <commit> itself).
539       While <rev>^<n> was about specifying a single commit parent, these
540       three notations also consider its parents. For example you can say
541       HEAD^2^@, however you cannot say HEAD^@^2.


544       <rev>
545           Include commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
546           ancestors).
548       ^<rev>
549           Exclude commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
550           ancestors).
552       <rev1>..<rev2>
553           Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those
554           that are reachable from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is
555           omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
557       <rev1>...<rev2>
558           Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but
559           exclude those that are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or
560           <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
562       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
563           A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all
564           parents of <rev> (meaning, include anything reachable from its
565           parents, but not the commit itself).
567       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
568           A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving
569           commit <rev> and then all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude
570           them (and their ancestors).
572       <rev>^-<n>, e.g. HEAD^-, HEAD^-2
573           Equivalent to <rev>^<n>..<rev>, with <n> = 1 if not given.
575       Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above,
576       with each step in the notation’s expansion and selection carefully
577       spelt out:
579              Args   Expanded arguments    Selected commits
580              D                            G H D
581              D F                          G H I J D F
582              ^G D                         H D
583              ^D B                         E I J F B
584              ^D B C                       E I J F B C
585              C                            I J F C
586              B..C   = ^B C                C
587              B...C  = B ^F C              G H D E B C
588              B^-    = B^..B
589                     = ^B^1 B              E I J F B
590              C^@    = C^1
591                     = F                   I J F
592              B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
593                     = D E F               D G H E F I J
594              C^!    = C ^C^@
595                     = C ^C^1
596                     = C ^F                C
597              B^!    = B ^B^@
598                     = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
599                     = B ^D ^E ^F          B
600              F^! D  = F ^I ^J D           G H D F


603       In --parseopt mode, git rev-parse helps massaging options to bring to
604       shell scripts the same facilities C builtins have. It works as an
605       option normalizer (e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit
606       like getopt(1) does.
608       It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to
609       parse and understand, and echoes on the standard output a string
610       suitable for sh(1) eval to replace the arguments with normalized ones.
611       In case of error, it outputs usage on the standard error stream, and
612       exits with code 129.
614       Note: Make sure you quote the result when passing it to eval. See below
615       for an example.
617   Input Format
618       git rev-parse --parseopt input format is fully text based. It has two
619       parts, separated by a line that contains only --. The lines before the
620       separator (should be one or more) are used for the usage. The lines
621       after the separator describe the options.
623       Each line of options has this format:
625           <opt-spec><flags>*<arg-hint>? SP+ help LF
629       <opt-spec>
630           its format is the short option character, then the long option name
631           separated by a comma. Both parts are not required, though at least
632           one is necessary. May not contain any of the <flags> characters.
633           h,help, dry-run and f are examples of correct <opt-spec>.
635       <flags>
636           <flags> are of *, =, ?  or !.
638           ·   Use = if the option takes an argument.
640           ·   Use ?  to mean that the option takes an optional argument. You
641               probably want to use the --stuck-long mode to be able to
642               unambiguously parse the optional argument.
644           ·   Use * to mean that this option should not be listed in the
645               usage generated for the -h argument. It’s shown for --help-all
646               as documented in gitcli(7).
648           ·   Use !  to not make the corresponding negated long option
649               available.
651       <arg-hint>
652           <arg-hint>, if specified, is used as a name of the argument in the
653           help output, for options that take arguments.  <arg-hint> is
654           terminated by the first whitespace. It is customary to use a dash
655           to separate words in a multi-word argument hint.
657       The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used as the
658       help associated to the option.
660       Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don’t match this specification
661       are used as option group headers (start the line with a space to create
662       such lines on purpose).
664   Example
665           OPTS_SPEC="\
666           some-command [<options>] <args>...
668           some-command does foo and bar!
669           --
670           h,help    show the help
672           foo       some nifty option --foo
673           bar=      some cool option --bar with an argument
674           baz=arg   another cool option --baz with a named argument
675           qux?path  qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself
677             An option group Header
678           C?        option C with an optional argument"
680           eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"
683   Usage text
684       When "$@" is -h or --help in the above example, the following usage
685       text would be shown:
687           usage: some-command [<options>] <args>...
689               some-command does foo and bar!
691               -h, --help            show the help
692               --foo                 some nifty option --foo
693               --bar ...             some cool option --bar with an argument
694               --baz <arg>           another cool option --baz with a named argument
695               --qux[=<path>]        qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself
697           An option group Header
698               -C[...]               option C with an optional argument


702       In --sq-quote mode, git rev-parse echoes on the standard output a
703       single line suitable for sh(1) eval. This line is made by normalizing
704       the arguments following --sq-quote. Nothing other than quoting the
705       arguments is done.
707       If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by git
708       rev-parse before the output is shell quoted, see the --sq option.
710   Example
711           $ cat >your-git-script.sh <<\EOF
712           #!/bin/sh
713           args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@")   # quote user-supplied arguments
714           command="git frotz -n24 $args"          # and use it inside a handcrafted
715                                                   # command line
716           eval "$command"
717           EOF
719           $ sh your-git-script.sh "a b'c"


723       ·   Print the object name of the current commit:
725               $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD
728       ·   Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell
729           variable:
731               $ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}
733           This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.
735       ·   Similar to above:
737               $ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV
739           but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be
740           printed.


743       Part of the git(1) suite
747Git 2.18.1                        05/14/2019                  GIT-REV-PARSE(1)