1FTP(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   FTP(1)


4     ftp — Internet file transfer program


7     ftp [-46AadefginpRtVv] [-N netrc] [-o output] [-P port] [-q quittime]
8         [-r retry] [-s srcaddr] [-T dir,max[,inc]] [-x xferbufsize]
9         [[user@]host [port]] [[user@]host:[path][/]] [file:///path]
10         [ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/][;type=X]]
11         [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
12     ftp -u URL file [...]


15     ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Proto‐
16     col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote
17     network site.
19     The last five arguments will fetch a file using the FTP or HTTP proto‐
20     cols, or by direct copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal
21     for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING FILES below for more information.
23     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter‐
24     preter.
26     -4          Forces ftp to only use IPv4 addresses.
28     -6          Forces ftp to only use IPv6 addresses.
30     -A          Force active mode ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use pas‐
31                 sive mode ftp and fall back to active mode if passive is not
32                 supported by the server.  This option causes ftp to always
33                 use an active connection.  It is only useful for connecting
34                 to very old servers that do not implement passive mode prop‐
35                 erly.
37     -a          Causes ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an
38                 anonymous login instead.
40     -d          Enables debugging.
42     -e          Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs
43                 ange-ftp mode.
45     -f          Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the FTP
46                 or HTTP proxies.
48     -g          Disables file name globbing.
50     -i          Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file trans‐
51                 fers.
53     -N netrc    Use netrc instead of ~/.netrc.  Refer to THE .netrc FILE for
54                 more information.
56     -n          Restrains ftp from attempting “auto-login” upon initial con‐
57                 nection for non auto-fetch transfers.  If auto-login is en‐
58                 abled, ftp will check the .netrc (see below) file in the
59                 user's home directory for an entry describing an account on
60                 the remote machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will prompt for
61                 the remote machine login name (default is the user identity
62                 on the local machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a pass‐
63                 word and an account with which to login.  To override the
64                 auto-login for auto-fetch transfers, specify the username
65                 (and optionally, password) as appropriate.
67     -o output   When auto-fetching files, save the contents in output.
68                 output is parsed according to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS be‐
69                 low.  If output is not ‘-’ or doesn't start with ‘|’, then
70                 only the first file specified will be retrieved into output;
71                 all other files will be retrieved into the basename of their
72                 remote name.
74     -P port     Sets the port number to port.
76     -p          Enable passive mode operation for use behind connection fil‐
77                 tering firewalls.  This option has been deprecated as ftp now
78                 tries to use passive mode by default, falling back to active
79                 mode if the server does not support passive connections.
81     -q quittime
82                 Quit if the connection has stalled for quittime seconds.
84     -R          Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.
86     -r wait     Retry the connection attempt if it failed, pausing for wait
87                 seconds.
89     -s srcaddr  Uses srcaddr as the local IP address for all connections.
91     -t          Enables packet tracing.
93     -T direction,maximum[,increment]
94                 Set the maximum transfer rate for direction to maximum
95                 bytes/second, and if specified, the increment to increment
96                 bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more information.
98     -u URL file [...]
99                 Upload files on the command line to URL where URL is one of
100                 the ftp URL types as supported by auto-fetch (with an op‐
101                 tional target filename for single file uploads), and file is
102                 one or more local files to be uploaded.
104     -V          Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of en‐
105                 abled when output is to a terminal.
107     -v          Enable verbose and progress.  This is the default if output
108                 is to a terminal (and in the case of progress, ftp is the
109                 foreground process).  Forces ftp to show all responses from
110                 the remote server, as well as report on data transfer statis‐
111                 tics.
113     -x xferbufsize
114                 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to
115                 xferbufsize.  Refer to xferbuf for more information.
117     The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
118     command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
119     a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its
120     command interpreter and await instructions from the user.  When ftp is
121     awaiting commands from the user the prompt ‘ftp>’ is provided to the
122     user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:
124     ! [command [args]]
125                 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there
126                 are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
127                 directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.
129     $ macro-name [args]
130                 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
131                 command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
133     account [passwd]
134                 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system
135                 for access to resources once a login has been successfully
136                 completed.  If no argument is included, the user will be
137                 prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.
139     append local-file [remote-file]
140                 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If
141                 remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used
142                 in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
143                 or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings for
144                 type, format, mode, and structure.
146     ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the de‐
147                 fault type.
149     bell        Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer com‐
150                 mand is completed.
152     binary      Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.
154     bye         Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit
155                 ftp.  An end of file will also terminate the session and
156                 exit.
158     case        Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during get,
159                 mget and mput commands.  When case is on (default is off),
160                 remote computer file names with all letters in upper case are
161                 written in the local directory with the letters mapped to
162                 lower case.
164     cd remote-directory
165                 Change the working directory on the remote machine to
166                 remote-directory.
168     cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
169                 the current remote machine working directory.
171     chmod mode remote-file
172                 Change the permission modes of the file remote-file on the
173                 remote system to mode.
175     close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return
176                 to the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.
178     cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file re‐
179                 trieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
180                 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
181                 default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
182                 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
183                 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line‐
184                 feeds; when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
185                 may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is
186                 off.
188     delete remote-file
189                 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
191     dir [remote-path [local-file]]
192                 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
193                 machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent informa‐
194                 tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
195                 UNIX systems will produce output from the command ‘ls -l’.
196                 If remote-path is left unspecified, the current working di‐
197                 rectory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will
198                 prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
199                 the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no local
200                 file is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is
201                 sent to the terminal.
203     disconnect  A synonym for close.
205     edit        Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command
206                 and file completion.  This is automatically enabled if input
207                 is from a terminal, and disabled otherwise.
209     epsv epsv4 epsv6
210                 Toggle the use of the extended EPSV and EPRT commands on all
211                 IP, IPv4, and IPv6 connections respectively.  First try EPSV
212                 / EPRT, and then PASV / PORT.  This is enabled by default.
213                 If an extended command fails then this option will be tempo‐
214                 rarily disabled for the duration of the current connection,
215                 or until epsv, epsv4, or epsv6 is executed again.
217     exit        A synonym for bye.
219     features    Display what features the remote server supports (using the
220                 FEAT command).
222     fget localfile
223                 Retrieve the files listed in localfile, which has one line
224                 per filename.
226     form format
227                 Set the file transfer form to format.  The default (and only
228                 supported) format is “non-print”.
230     ftp host [port]
231                 A synonym for open.
233     ftp_debug [ftp_debug-value]
234                 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional ftp_debug-value is
235                 specified it is used to set the debugging level.  When debug‐
236                 ging is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote ma‐
237                 chine, preceded by the string ‘-->’.
239     gate [host [port]]
240                 Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS
241                 FWTK and Gauntlet ftp proxies.  This will not be permitted if
242                 the gate-ftp server hasn't been set (either explicitly by the
243                 user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If host
244                 is given, then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-
245                 ftp server will be set to host.  If port is also given, that
246                 will be used as the port to connect to on the gate-ftp
247                 server.
249     get remote-file [local-file]
250                 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
251                 If the local file name is not specified, it is given the same
252                 name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by
253                 the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current
254                 settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
255                 transferring the file.
257     glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget, mput, and
258                 mreget.  If globbing is turned off with glob, the file name
259                 arguments are taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for
260                 mput is done as in csh(1).  For mdelete, mget, and mreget,
261                 each remote file name is expanded separately on the remote
262                 machine and the lists are not merged.  Expansion of a direc‐
263                 tory name is likely to be different from expansion of the
264                 name of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the
265                 foreign operating system and ftp server, and can be previewed
266                 by doing ‘mls remote-files -’ Note: mget, mput and mreget are
267                 not meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of files.
268                 That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the sub‐
269                 tree (in binary mode).
271     hash [size]
272                 Toggle hash-sign (‘#’) printing for each data block trans‐
273                 ferred.  The size of a data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
274                 This can be changed by specifying size in bytes.  Enabling
275                 hash disables progress.
277     help [command]
278                 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.
279                 If no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known com‐
280                 mands.
282     idle [seconds]
283                 Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds sec‐
284                 onds.  If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is
285                 printed.
287     image       A synonym for binary.
289     lcd [directory]
290                 Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no
291                 directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.
293     less file   A synonym for page.
295     lpage local-file
296                 Display local-file with the program specified by the set
297                 pager option.
299     lpwd        Print the working directory on the local machine.
301     ls [remote-path [local-file]]
302                 A synonym for dir.
304     macdef macro-name
305                 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
306                 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
307                 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
308                 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total
309                 characters in all defined macros.  Macro names can be a maxi‐
310                 mum of 8 characters.  Macros are only applicable to the cur‐
311                 rent session they are defined within (or if defined outside a
312                 session, to the session invoked with the next open command),
313                 and remain defined until a close command is executed.  To in‐
314                 voke a macro, use the $ command (see above).
316                 The macro processor interprets ‘$’ and ‘\’ as special charac‐
317                 ters.  A ‘$’ followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by
318                 the corresponding argument on the macro invocation command
319                 line.  A ‘$’ followed by an ‘i’ signals the macro processor
320                 that the executing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass
321                 “$i” is replaced by the first argument on the macro invoca‐
322                 tion command line, on the second pass it is replaced by the
323                 second argument, and so on.  A ‘\’ followed by any character
324                 is replaced by that character.  Use the ‘\’ to prevent spe‐
325                 cial treatment of the ‘$’.
327     mdelete [remote-files]
328                 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.
330     mdir remote-files local-file
331                 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If
332                 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver‐
333                 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
334                 for receiving mdir output.
336     mget remote-files
337                 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get
338                 for each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on
339                 the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
340                 processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
341                 Files are transferred into the local working directory, which
342                 can be changed with ‘lcd directory’; new local directories
343                 can be created with ‘! mkdir directory’.
345     mkdir directory-name
346                 Make a directory on the remote machine.
348     mls remote-files local-file
349                 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
350                 the local-file must be specified.  If interactive prompting
351                 is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argu‐
352                 ment is indeed the target local file for receiving mls out‐
353                 put.
355     mlsd [remote-path]
356                 Display the contents of remote-path (which should default to
357                 the current directory if not given) in a machine-parsable
358                 form, using MLSD.  The format of display can be changed with
359                 ‘remopts mlst ...’.
361     mlst [remote-path]
362                 Display the details about remote-path (which should default
363                 to the current directory if not given) in a machine-parsable
364                 form, using MLST.  The format of display can be changed with
365                 ‘remopts mlst ...’.
367     mode mode-name
368                 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default (and
369                 only supported) mode is “stream”.
371     modtime remote-file
372                 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote ma‐
373                 chine, in RFC 2822 format.
375     more file   A synonym for page.
377     mput local-files
378                 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as argu‐
379                 ments and do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See
380                 glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
381                 will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.
383     mreget remote-files
384                 As per mget, but performs a reget instead of get.
386     msend local-files
387                 A synonym for mput.
389     newer remote-file [local-file]
390                 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
391                 is more recent that the file on the current system.  If the
392                 file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
393                 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to
394                 get.
396     nlist [remote-path [local-file]]
397                 A synonym for ls.
399     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
400                 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
401                 are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
402                 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
403                 mput commands and put commands issued without a specified re‐
404                 mote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
405                 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
406                 issued without a specified local target filename.  This com‐
407                 mand is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer
408                 with different file naming conventions or practices.  The
409                 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
410                 [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
411                 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
412                 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
413                 the sequences “$1”, “$2”, ...  “$9” in inpattern.  Use ‘\’ to
414                 prevent this special treatment of the ‘$’ character.  All
415                 other characters are treated literally, and are used to de‐
416                 termine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example,
417                 given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data",
418                 $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value
419                 "data".  The outpattern determines the resulting mapped file‐
420                 name.  The sequences “$1”, “$2”, ...  “$9” are replaced by
421                 any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The se‐
422                 quence “$0” is replaced by the original filename.  Addition‐
423                 ally, the sequence “[seq1, seq2]” is replaced by [seq1] if
424                 seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.
425                 For example, the command
427                       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
429                 would yield the output filename "myfile.data" for input file‐
430                 names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for
431                 the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the in‐
432                 put filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
433                 outpattern, as in the example:
434                       nmap $1 sed s/  *$// > $1
435                 Use the ‘\’ character to prevent special treatment of the
436                 ‘$’, ‘[’, ‘]’, and ‘,’ characters.
438     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
439                 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
440                 If no arguments are specified, the filename character trans‐
441                 lation mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, char‐
442                 acters in remote filenames are translated during mput com‐
443                 mands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar‐
444                 get filename.  If arguments are specified, characters in lo‐
445                 cal filenames are translated during mget commands and get
446                 commands issued without a specified local target filename.
447                 This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
448                 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
449                 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
450                 replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.  If
451                 the character's position in inchars is longer than the length
452                 of outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.
454     open host [port]
455                 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An
456                 optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
457                 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.  If the set
458                 auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
459                 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).
461     page file   Retrieve file and display with the program specified by the
462                 set pager option.
464     passive [auto]
465                 Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is
466                 given, act as if FTPMODE is set to ‘auto’.  If passive mode
467                 is turned on (default), ftp will send a PASV command for all
468                 data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV command
469                 requests that the remote server open a port for the data con‐
470                 nection and return the address of that port.  The remote
471                 server listens on that port and the client connects to it.
472                 When using the more traditional PORT command, the client lis‐
473                 tens on a port and sends that address to the remote server,
474                 who connects back to it.  Passive mode is useful when using
475                 ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the direc‐
476                 tionality of traffic.  (Note that though FTP servers are re‐
477                 quired to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some do not.)
479     pdir [remote-path]
480                 Perform dir [remote-path], and display the result with the
481                 program specified by the set pager option.
483     pls [remote-path]
484                 Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the
485                 program specified by the set pager option.
487     pmlsd [remote-path]
488                 Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the
489                 program specified by the set pager option.
491     preserve    Toggle preservation of modification times on retrieved files.
493     progress    Toggle display of transfer progress bar.  The progress bar
494                 will be disabled for a transfer that has local-file as ‘-’ or
495                 a command that starts with ‘|’.  Refer to FILE NAMING
496                 CONVENTIONS for more information.  Enabling progress disables
497                 hash.
499     prompt      Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs
500                 during multiple file transfers to allow the user to selec‐
501                 tively retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off
502                 (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files,
503                 and any mdelete will delete all files.
505                 When prompting is on, the following commands are available at
506                 a prompt:
508                       a   Answer ‘yes’ to the current file, and automatically
509                           answer ‘yes’ to any remaining files for the current
510                           command.
512                       n   Answer ‘no’, and do not transfer the file.
514                       p   Answer ‘yes’ to the current file, and turn off
515                           prompt mode (as is “prompt off” had been given).
517                       q   Terminate the current operation.
519                       y   Answer ‘yes’, and transfer the file.
521                       ?   Display a help message.
523                 Any other response will answer ‘yes’ to the current file.
525     proxy ftp-command
526                 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
527                 This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote FTP
528                 servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The
529                 first proxy command should be an open, to establish the sec‐
530                 ondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
531                 see other FTP commands executable on the secondary connec‐
532                 tion.  The following commands behave differently when pref‐
533                 aced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
534                 auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro defi‐
535                 nitions, get and mget transfer files from the host on the
536                 primary control connection to the host on the secondary con‐
537                 trol connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
538                 from the host on the secondary control connection to the host
539                 on the primary control connection.  Third party file trans‐
540                 fers depend upon support of the FTP protocol PASV command by
541                 the server on the secondary control connection.
543     put local-file [remote-file]
544                 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
545                 left unspecified, the local file name is used after process‐
546                 ing according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the
547                 remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
548                 type, format, mode, and structure.
550     pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote
551                 machine.
553     quit        A synonym for bye.
555     quote arg1 arg2 ...
556                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
557                 server.
559     rate direction [maximum [increment]]
560                 Throttle the maximum transfer rate to maximum bytes/second.
561                 If maximum is 0, disable the throttle.
563                 direction may be one of:
564                       all  Both directions.
565                       get  Incoming transfers.
566                       put  Outgoing transfers.
568                 maximum can be modified on the fly by increment bytes (de‐
569                 fault: 1024) each time a given signal is received:
571                       SIGUSR1  Increment maximum by increment bytes.
573                       SIGUSR2  Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The re‐
574                                sult must be a positive number.
576                 If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates are
577                 displayed.
579                 Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.
581     rcvbuf size
582                 Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.
584     recv remote-file [local-file]
585                 A synonym for get.
587     reget remote-file [local-file]
588                 reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
589                 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a par‐
590                 tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
591                 continued from the apparent point of failure.  This command
592                 is useful when transferring very large files over networks
593                 that are prone to dropping connections.
595     remopts command [command-options]
596                 Set options on the remote FTP server for command to
597                 command-options (whose absence is handled on a command-spe‐
598                 cific basis).  Remote FTP commands known to support options
599                 include: ‘MLST’ (used for MLSD and MLST).
601     rename [from [to]]
602                 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.
604     reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/re‐
605                 ply sequencing with the remote FTP server.  Resynchronization
606                 may be necessary following a violation of the FTP protocol by
607                 the remote server.
609     restart marker
610                 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
611                 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
612                 into the file.
614     rhelp [command-name]
615                 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name
616                 is specified it is supplied to the server as well.
618     rmdir directory-name
619                 Delete a directory on the remote machine.
621     rstatus [remote-file]
622                 With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If
623                 remote-file is specified, show status of remote-file on re‐
624                 mote machine.
626     runique     Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique file‐
627                 names.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the
628                 target local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
629                 appended to the name.  If the resulting name matches another
630                 existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
631                 this process continues up to ".99", an error message is
632                 printed, and the transfer does not take place.  The generated
633                 unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
634                 affect local files generated from a shell command (see be‐
635                 low).  The default value is off.
637     send local-file [remote-file]
638                 A synonym for put.
640     sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will at‐
641                 tempt to use a PORT command when establishing a connection
642                 for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
643                 delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
644                 command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the
645                 use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
646                 use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
647                 certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
648                 but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.
650     set [option value]
651                 Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, dis‐
652                 play all of the options and their values.  The currently sup‐
653                 ported options are:
655                       anonpass     Defaults to $FTPANONPASS
657                       ftp_proxy    Defaults to $ftp_proxy.
659                       http_proxy   Defaults to $http_proxy.
661                       https_proxy  Defaults to $https_proxy.
663                       no_proxy     Defaults to $no_proxy.
665                       pager        Defaults to $PAGER.
667                       prompt       Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.
669                       rprompt      Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.
671     site arg1 arg2 ...
672                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
673                 server as a SITE command.
675     size remote-file
676                 Return size of remote-file on remote machine.
678     sndbuf size
679                 Set the size of the socket send buffer to size.
681     status      Show the current status of ftp.
683     struct struct-name
684                 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  The default
685                 (and only supported) structure is “file”.
687     sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
688                 names.  The remote FTP server must support FTP protocol STOU
689                 command for successful completion.  The remote server will
690                 report unique name.  Default value is off.
692     system      Show the type of operating system running on the remote ma‐
693                 chine.
695     tenex       Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX
696                 machines.
698     throttle    A synonym for rate.
700     trace       Toggle packet tracing.
702     type [type-name]
703                 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec‐
704                 ified, the current type is printed.  The default type is net‐
705                 work ASCII.
707     umask [newmask]
708                 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If
709                 newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.
711     unset option
712                 Unset option.  Refer to set for more information.
714     usage command
715                 Print the usage message for command.
717     user user-name [password [account]]
718                 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
719                 is not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
720                 the user for it (after disabling local echo).  If an account
721                 field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
722                 user will be prompted for it.  If an account field is speci‐
723                 fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote server
724                 after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
725                 did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked
726                 with “auto-login” disabled, this process is done automati‐
727                 cally on initial connection to the FTP server.
729     verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the
730                 FTP server are displayed to the user.  In addition, if ver‐
731                 bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics re‐
732                 garding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By de‐
733                 fault, verbose is on.
735     xferbuf size
736                 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to size.
738     ? [command]
739                 A synonym for help.
741     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote ‘"’
742     marks.
744     Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit on or off argument to
745     force the setting appropriately.
747     Commands which take a byte count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate, and
748     xferbuf) support an optional suffix on the argument which changes the in‐
749     terpretation of the argument.  Supported suffixes are:
750           b    Causes no modification.  (Optional)
751           k    Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
752           m    Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
753           g    Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824
755     If ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the “status” argument of stty(1)) or
756     SIGQUIT signal whilst a transfer is in progress, the current transfer
757     rate statistics will be written to the standard error output, in the same
758     format as the standard completion message.


761     In addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-
762     fetch feature.  To enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list of host‐
763     names/files on the command line.
765     The following formats are valid syntax for an auto-fetch element:
767     [user@]host:[path][/]
768           “Classic” FTP format.
770           If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see
771           glob), then the equivalent of ‘mget path’ is performed.
773           If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters,
774           it is stored locally with the name basename (see basename(1)) of
775           path, in the current directory.  Otherwise, the full remote name is
776           used as the local name, relative to the local root directory.
778     ftp://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path[/][;type=X]
779           An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol if set ftp_proxy isn't
780           defined.  Otherwise, transfer the URL using HTTP via the proxy de‐
781           fined in set ftp_proxy.  If set ftp_proxy isn't defined and user is
782           given, login as user.  In this case, use password if supplied, oth‐
783           erwise prompt the user for one.
785           If a suffix of ‘;type=A’ or ‘;type=I’ is supplied, then the trans‐
786           fer type will take place as ascii or binary (respectively).  The
787           default transfer type is binary.
789           In order to be compliant with RFC 3986, ftp interprets the path
790           part of an “ftp://” auto-fetch URL as follows:
792           The ‘/’ immediately after the host[:port] is interpreted as a
793               separator before the path, and not as part of the path itself.
795           The path is interpreted as a ‘/’-separated list of name compo‐
796               nents.  For all but the last such component, ftp performs the
797               equivalent of a cd command.  For the last path component, ftp
798               performs the equivalent of a get command.
800           Empty name components, which result from ‘//’ within the path,
801               or from an extra ‘/’ at the beginning of the path, will cause
802               the equivalent of a cd command without a directory name.  This
803               is unlikely to be useful.
805           Any ‘%XX’ codes (per RFC 3986) within the path components are
806               decoded, with XX representing a character code in hexadecimal.
807               This decoding takes place after the path has been split into
808               components, but before each component is used in the equivalent
809               of a cd or get command.  Some often-used codes are ‘%2F’ (which
810               represents ‘/’) and ‘%7E’ (which represents ‘~’).
812           The above interpretation has the following consequences:
814           The path is interpreted relative to the default login directory
815               of the specified user or of the ‘anonymous’ user.  If the / di‐
816               rectory is required, use a leading path of “%2F”.  If a user's
817               home directory is required (and the remote server supports the
818               syntax), use a leading path of “%7Euser/”.  For example, to re‐
819               trieve /etc/motd from ‘localhost’ as the user ‘myname’ with the
820               password ‘mypass’, use
821               “ftp://myname:mypass@localhost/%2fetc/motd”
823           The exact cd and get commands can be controlled by careful
824               choice of where to use ‘/’ and where to use ‘%2F’ (or ‘%2f’).
825               For example, the following URLs correspond to the equivalents
826               of the indicated commands:
828               ftp://host/dir1/dir2/file         “cd dir1”, “cd dir2”, “get
829                                                 file”.
831               ftp://host/%2Fdir1/dir2/file      “cd /dir1”, “cd dir2”, “get
832                                                 file”.
834               ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2/file       “cd dir1/dir2”, “get file”.
836               ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2/file    “cd /dir1/dir2”, “get file”.
838               ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile     “get dir1/dir2/file”.
840               ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile  “get /dir1/dir2/file”.
842           You must have appropriate access permission for each of the in‐
843               termediate directories that is used in the equivalent of a cd
844               command.
846     http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
847           An HTTP URL, retrieved using the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy
848           is defined, it is used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If HTTP
849           authorization is required to retrieve path, and ‘user’ (and option‐
850           ally ‘password’) is in the URL, use them for the first attempt to
851           authenticate.
853     https://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path
854           An HTTPS URL, retrieved using the HTTPS protocol.  If set
855           https_proxy is defined, it is used as a URL to an HTTPS proxy
856           server.  If HTTPS authorization is required to retrieve path, and
857           ‘user’ (and optionally ‘password’) is in the URL, use them for the
858           first attempt to authenticate.  There is currently no certificate
859           validation and verification.
861     file:///path
862           A local URL, copied from /path on the local host.
864     about:topic
865           Display information regarding topic; no file is retrieved for this
866           auto-fetched element.  Supported values include:
868           about:ftp      Information about ftp.
870           about:version  The version of ftp.  Useful to provide when report‐
871                          ing problems.
873     Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not given, the file is
874     stored in the current directory as the basename(1) of path.  Note that if
875     a HTTP redirect is received, the fetch is retried using the new target
876     URL supplied by the server, with a corresponding new path.  Using an ex‐
877     plicit -o output is recommended, to avoid writing to unexpected file
878     names.
880     If a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing ‘/’ or an empty
881     path component, then ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory
882     given as the path, and leave the user in interactive mode ready for fur‐
883     ther input.  This will not work if set ftp_proxy is being used.
885     Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use
886     HTTP 1.0.
888     If -R is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via the FTP or HTTP prox‐
889     ies will be restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget in‐
890     stead of get.  For HTTP, this is implemented by using the ‘Range: bytes=’
891     HTTP/1.1 directive.
893     If WWW or proxy WWW authentication is required, you will be prompted to
894     enter a username and password to authenticate with.
896     When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to surround the
897     address in square brackets.  E.g.: “ftp://[::1]:21/”.  This is because
898     colons are used in IPv6 numeric address as well as being the separator
899     for the port number.


902     To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
903     C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
904     will be halted by sending an FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
905     server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed at which
906     this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
907     processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, the
908     prompt will not appear until the remote server has completed sending the
909     requested file.
911     If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a
912     reply from the remote server for the ABOR processing, then the connection
913     will be closed.  This is different from the traditional behaviour (which
914     ignores the terminal interrupt during this phase), but is considered more
915     useful.


918     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
919     the following rules.
921     1.   If the file name ‘-’ is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout
922          (for writing) is used.
924     2.   If the first character of the file name is ‘|’, the remainder of the
925          argument is interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then forks a shell,
926          using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from
927          the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu‐
928          ment must be quoted; e.g.  “"| ls -lt"”.  A particularly useful ex‐
929          ample of this mechanism is: “dir "" |more”.
931     3.   Failing the above checks, if “globbing” is enabled, local file names
932          are expanded according to the rules used in the csh(1); see the glob
933          command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file (e.g.
934          put), only the first filename generated by the "globbing" operation
935          is used.
937     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file
938          names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be al‐
939          tered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename
940          may then be altered if runique is on.
942     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
943          names, the remote filename is the local filename, which may be al‐
944          tered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may then
945          be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.


948     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
949     transfer.  The type may be one of “ascii”, “image” (binary), “ebcdic”,
950     and “local byte size” (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).  ftp supports
951     the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte size 8 for
952     tenex mode transfers.
954     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer pa‐
955     rameters: mode, form, and struct.

THE .netrc FILE

958     The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the
959     auto-login process.  It resides in the user's home directory, unless
960     overridden with the -N netrc option, or specified in the NETRC environ‐
961     ment variable.  The following tokens are recognized; they may be sepa‐
962     rated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:
964     machine name
965               Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process
966               searches the .netrc file for a machine token that matches the
967               remote machine specified on the ftp command line or as an open
968               command argument.  Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc
969               tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached
970               or another machine or a default token is encountered.
972     default   This is the same as machine name except that default matches
973               any name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be
974               after all machine tokens.  This is normally used as:
976                     default login anonymous password user@site
978               thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login to ma‐
979               chines not specified in .netrc.  This can be overridden by us‐
980               ing the -n flag to disable auto-login.
982     login name
983               Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token is
984               present, the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
985               specified name.
987     password string
988               Supply a password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
989               process will supply the specified string if the remote server
990               requires a password as part of the login process.  Note that if
991               this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
992               than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the
993               .netrc is readable by anyone besides the user.
995     account string
996               Supply an additional account password.  If this token is
997               present, the auto-login process will supply the specified
998               string if the remote server requires an additional account
999               password, or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT com‐
1000               mand if it does not.
1002     macdef name
1003               Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp macdef com‐
1004               mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name;
1005               its contents begin with the next .netrc line and continue until
1006               a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.
1007               Like the other tokens in the .netrc file, a macdef is applica‐
1008               ble only to the machine definition preceding it.  A macdef en‐
1009               try cannot be used by multiple machine definitions; rather, it
1010               must be defined following each machine it is intended to be
1011               used with.  If a macro named init is defined, it is automati‐
1012               cally executed as the last step in the auto-login process.  For
1013               example,
1015                     default
1016                     macdef init
1017                     epsv4 off
1019               followed by a blank line.


1022     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via the editline(3) li‐
1023     brary.  It is enabled with the edit command, and is enabled by default if
1024     input is from a tty.  Previous lines can be recalled and edited with the
1025     arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be used as well.
1027     The editline(3) library is configured with a .editrc file - refer to
1028     editrc(5) for more information.
1030     An extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive
1031     command and filename completion (including remote file completion).  To
1032     use this, bind a key to the editline(3) command ftp-complete.  By de‐
1033     fault, this is bound to the TAB key.


1036     By default, ftp displays a command line prompt of “ftp> ” to the user.
1037     This can be changed with the set prompt command.
1039     A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the screen (after the com‐
1040     mand input) with the set rprompt command.
1042     The following formatting sequences are replaced by the given information:
1044           %/   The current remote working directory.
1046           %c[[0]n],%.[[0]n]
1047                The trailing component of the current remote working direc‐
1048                tory, or n trailing components if a digit n is given.  If n
1049                begins with ‘0’, the number of skipped components precede the
1050                trailing component(s) in the format “/<number>trailing” (for
1051                ‘%c’) or “...trailing” (for ‘%.’).
1053           %M   The remote host name.
1055           %m   The remote host name, up to the first ‘.’.
1057           %n   The remote user name.
1059           %%   A single ‘%’.


1062     ftp uses the following environment variables.
1064     FTPANONPASS    Password to send in an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults
1065                    to “`whoami`@”.
1067     FTPMODE        Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:
1069                    active   active mode FTP only
1071                    auto     automatic determination of passive or active
1072                             (this is the default)
1074                    gate     gate-ftp mode
1076                    passive  passive mode FTP only
1078     FTPPROMPT      Command-line prompt to use.  Defaults to “ftp> ”.  Refer
1079                    to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.
1081     FTPRPROMPT     Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to “”.
1082                    Refer to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.
1084     FTPSERVER      Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.
1086     FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when gate
1087                    is enabled.  Default is port returned by a getservbyname()
1088                    lookup of “ftpgate/tcp”.
1090     FTPUSERAGENT   The value to send for the HTTP User-Agent header.
1092     HOME           For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.
1094     NETRC          An alternate location of the .netrc file.
1096     PAGER          Used by various commands to display files.  Defaults to
1097                    more(1) if empty or not set.
1099     SHELL          For default shell.
1101     ftp_proxy      URL of FTP proxy to use when making FTP URL requests (if
1102                    not defined, use the standard FTP protocol).
1104                    See http_proxy for further notes about proxy use.
1106     http_proxy     URL of HTTP proxy to use when making HTTP URL requests.
1107                    If proxy authentication is required and there is a user‐
1108                    name and password in this URL, they will automatically be
1109                    used in the first attempt to authenticate to the proxy.
1111                    If “unsafe” URL characters are required in the username or
1112                    password (for example ‘@’ or ‘/’), encode them with RFC
1113                    3986 ‘%XX’ encoding.
1115                    Note that the use of a username and password in ftp_proxy
1116                    and http_proxy may be incompatible with other programs
1117                    that use it (such as lynx(1)).
1119                    NOTE: this is not used for interactive sessions, only for
1120                    command-line fetches.
1122     no_proxy       A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for
1123                    which proxying is not to be used.  Each entry may have an
1124                    optional trailing ":port", which restricts the matching to
1125                    connections to that port.


1128     Some firewall configurations do not allow ftp to use extended passive
1129     mode.  If you find that even a simple ls appears to hang after printing a
1130     message such as this:
1132           229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||58551|)
1134     then you will need to disable extended passive mode with epsv4 off.  See
1135     the above section The .netrc File for an example of how to make this au‐
1136     tomatic.


1139     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)


1142     ftp attempts to be compliant with:
1144           RFC 959   File Transfer Protocol
1146           RFC 1123  Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support
1148           RFC 1635  How to Use Anonymous FTP
1150           RFC 2389  Feature negotiation mechanism for the File Transfer
1151                     Protocol
1153           RFC 2428  FTP Extensions for IPv6 and NATs
1155           RFC 2616  Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1
1157           RFC 2822  Internet Message Format
1159           RFC 3659  Extensions to FTP
1161           RFC 3986  Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)


1164     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.
1166     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command
1167     and file completion, dynamic progress bar, automatic fetching of files
1168     and URLs, modification time preservation, transfer rate throttling, con‐
1169     figurable command line prompt, and other enhancements over the standard
1170     BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD 1.3 and later releases by Luke Mewburn
1171     ⟨lukem@NetBSD.org⟩.
1173     IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present
1174     in all non-NetBSD versions of this program, depending if the operating
1175     system supports IPv6 in a similar manner to KAME).


1178     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
1179     remote server.
1181     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
1182     transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incor‐
1183     rect transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii
1184     type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.
1186     ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses (IPv6 addresses with a form
1187     like ::ffff: indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by
1188     AF_INET sockets.  However, in certain IPv6 network configurations, this
1189     assumption is not true.  In such an environment, IPv4 mapped addresses
1190     must be passed to AF_INET6 sockets directly.  For example, if your site
1191     uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable to
1192     support your configuration.
1194BSD                             April 24, 2015                             BSD