1in.routed(1M)           System Administration Commands           in.routed(1M)


6       in.routed, routed - network routing daemon


9       /usr/sbin/in.routed [-AdghmnqsStVz] [-T tracefile [-v]]
10        [-F net[/mask ][,metric]] [-P params]


14       The  daemon  in.routed, often referred to as routed, is invoked at boot
15       time to manage the network routing tables. It uses Routing  Information
16       Protocol,  RIPv1 (RFC 1058), RIPv2 (RFC 2453), and Internet Router Dis‐
17       covery Protocol (RFC 1256) to maintain the kernel  routing  table.  The
18       RIPv1 protocol is based on the reference 4.3BSD daemon.
21       in.routed is managed by means of the service management facility (SMF),
22       using the fault management resource identifier (FMRI):
24         svc:/network/routing/route:default
29       The daemon listens on a udp socket for  the  route  service  (see  ser‐
30       vices(4))  for  Routing Information Protocol packets. It also sends and
31       receives multicast Router Discovery ICMP messages. If  the  host  is  a
32       router, in.routed periodically supplies copies of its routing tables to
33       any directly connected hosts and networks. It also advertises or solic‐
34       its default routes using Router Discovery ICMP messages.
37       When  started  (or  when  a  network  interface  is  later  turned on),
38       in.routed uses an  AF_ROUTE  address  family  facility  to  find  those
39       directly  connected  interfaces  configured  into the system and marked
40       "up". It adds necessary routes for the interfaces to the kernel routing
41       table.  Soon  after being first started, and provided there is at least
42       one interface on which RIP has not been disabled, in.routed deletes all
43       pre-existing  non-static  routes  in the kernel table. Static routes in
44       the kernel table are preserved and included in RIP  responses  if  they
45       have a valid RIP metric (see route(1M)).
48       If more than one interface is present (not counting the loopback inter‐
49       face), it is assumed that the host should  forward  packets  among  the
50       connected networks. After transmitting a RIP request and Router Discov‐
51       ery Advertisements or Solicitations on  a  new  interface,  the  daemon
52       enters  a  loop, listening for RIP request and response and Router Dis‐
53       covery packets from other hosts.
56       When a request packet is received, in.routed formulates a  reply  based
57       on  the  information  maintained  in  its internal tables. The response
58       packet generated contains a list of known routes, each  marked  with  a
59       "hop count" metric (a count of 16 or greater is considered "infinite").
60       Advertised metrics reflect the metric associated with an interface (see
61       ifconfig(1M)),  so  setting  the metric on an interface is an effective
62       way to steer traffic.
65       Responses do not include routes with a first hop on the requesting net‐
66       work,  to implement in part split-horizon. Requests from query programs
67       such as rtquery(1M) are answered with the complete table.
70       The routing table maintained by the daemon includes space  for  several
71       gateways  for each destination to speed recovery from a failing router.
72       RIP response packets received are used to update  the  routing  tables,
73       provided they are from one of the several currently recognized gateways
74       or advertise a better metric than at least one of  the  existing  gate‐
75       ways.
78       When  an  update  is  applied,  in.routed records the change in its own
79       tables and updates the kernel routing table if the best  route  to  the
80       destination  changes.  The  change  in  the  kernel  routing  table  is
81       reflected in the next batch of  response  packets  sent.  If  the  next
82       response is not scheduled for a while, a flash update response contain‐
83       ing only recently changed routes is sent.
86       In addition to processing incoming packets, in.routed also periodically
87       checks  the routing table entries. If an entry has not been updated for
88       3 minutes, the entry's metric is set to infinity and marked  for  dele‐
89       tion. Deletions are delayed until the route has been advertised with an
90       infnite metric to insure the invalidation is propagated throughout  the
91       local internet. This is a form of poison reverse.
94       Routes  in  the  kernel  table that are added or changed as a result of
95       ICMP Redirect messages are deleted after a  while  to  minimize  black-
96       holes.  When  a  TCP  connection  suffers  a  timeout, the kernel tells
97       in.routed, which deletes all  redirected  routes  through  the  gateway
98       involved,  advances  the  age  of all RIP routes through the gateway to
99       allow an alternate to be chosen, and advances of the age of  any  rele‐
100       vant Router Discovery Protocol default routes.
103       Hosts  acting as internetwork routers gratuitously supply their routing
104       tables every 30 seconds to all directly connected hosts  and  networks.
105       These RIP responses are sent to the broadcast address on nets that sup‐
106       port broadcasting, to the destination address on point-to-point  links,
107       and to the router's own address on other networks. If RIPv2 is enabled,
108       multicast packets are sent on interfaces that support multicasting.
111       If no response is received on a remote interface, if there  are  errors
112       while sending responses, or if there are more errors than input or out‐
113       put (see netstat(1M)), then the cable or some other part of the  inter‐
114       face  is  assumed to be disconnected or broken, and routes are adjusted
115       appropriately.
118       The Internet Router Discovery Protocol is handled similarly.  When  the
119       daemon  is  supplying  RIP routes, it also listens for Router Discovery
120       Solicitations and sends Advertisements. When it is quiet and  listening
121       to other RIP routers, it sends Solicitations and listens for Advertise‐
122       ments. If it receives a good Advertisement and it is  not  multi-homed,
123       it  stops listening for broadcast or multicast RIP responses. It tracks
124       several advertising routers to speed recovery when the currently chosen
125       router  dies.  If  all discovered routers disappear, the daemon resumes
126       listening to RIP responses. It continues listening to RIP  while  using
127       Router Discovery if multi-homed to ensure all interfaces are used.
130       The  Router  Discovery  standard  requires  that  advertisements have a
131       default "lifetime" of 30 minutes. That means should something happen, a
132       client can be without a good route for 30 minutes. It is a good idea to
133       reduce the default to 45 seconds using -P rdisc_interval=45 on the com‐
134       mand  line  or  rdisc_interval=45  in the /etc/gateways file. See gate‐
135       ways(4).
138       While using Router Discovery (which happens by default when the  system
139       has  a  single network interface and a Router Discover Advertisement is
140       received), there is a single default route and  a  variable  number  of
141       redirected  host  routes  in the kernel table. On a host with more than
142       one network interface, this default route will be via only one  of  the
143       interfaces.  Thus,  multi-homed  hosts  running  with -q might need the
144       no_rdisc argument described below.
147       To support "legacy" systems that can handle neither  RIPv2  nor  Router
148       Discovery, you can use the pm_rdisc parameter in the /etc/gateways. See
149       gateways(4).
152       By default, neither Router Discovery advertisements  nor  solicitations
153       are  sent  over point-to-point links (for example, PPP). The Solaris OE
154       uses a netmask of all ones ( on point-to-point links.
157       in.routed supports the notion of "distant" passive or active  gateways.
158       When  the  daemon  is  started, it reads the file /etc/gateways to find
159       such distant gateways that cannot be  located  using  only  information
160       from  a  routing  socket, to discover if some of the local gateways are
161       passive, and to obtain other parameters.  Gateways  specified  in  this
162       manner  should  be  marked passive if they are not expected to exchange
163       routing information, while gateways marked active should be willing  to
164       exchange  RIP packets. Routes through passive gateways are installed in
165       the kernel's routing tables once upon startup and are not  included  in
166       transmitted RIP responses.
169       Distant  active  gateways  are  treated  like  network  interfaces. RIP
170       responses are sent to the distant active gateway. If no  responses  are
171       received, the associated route is deleted from the kernel table and RIP
172       responses are advertised via other interfaces. If the  distant  gateway
173       resumes sending RIP responses, the associated route is restored.
176       Distant  active  gateways  can  be  useful on media that do not support
177       broadcasts or multicasts but otherwise act like classic  shared  media,
178       such  as  some  ATM networks. One can list all RIP routers reachable on
179       the HIPPI or ATM network in  /etc/gateways  with  a  series  of  "host"
180       lines.  Note  that  it is usually desirable to use RIPv2 in such situa‐
181       tions to avoid generating lists of inferred host routes.
184       Gateways marked external are also passive, but are not  placed  in  the
185       kernel  routing  table,  nor  are they included in routing updates. The
186       function of external  entries  is  to  indicate  that  another  routing
187       process  will  install such a route if necessary, and that other routes
188       to that destination should not be installed by in.routed. Such  entries
189       are  required  only when both routers might learn of routes to the same
190       destination.


193       Listed below are available options.  Any  other  argument  supplied  is
194       interpreted  as  the  name  of a file in which the actions of in.routed
195       should be logged. It is better to use -T (described below)  instead  of
196       appending  the  name  of  the trace file to the command. Associated SMF
197       properties for these options are described, and can be set by means  of
198       a command of the form:
200         # routeadm -m route:default name=value
204       -A
206           Do  not  ignore  RIPv2 authentication if we do not care about RIPv2
207           authentication. This option is required for  conformance  with  RFC
208           2453.  However, it makes no sense and breaks using RIP as a discov‐
209           ery protocol to ignore all RIPv2 packets that carry  authentication
210           when  this  machine does not care about authentication. This option
211           is equivalent to setting the ignore_auth property value to false.
214       -d
216           Do not run in the background. This option is meant for  interactive
217           use and is not usable under the SMF.
220       -F net[/mask][,metric]
222           Minimize routes in transmissions via interfaces with addresses that
223           match  net  (network  number)/mask  (netmask),  and  synthesizes  a
224           default  route  to  this  machine with the metric. The intent is to
225           reduce RIP traffic on  slow,  point-to-point  links,  such  as  PPP
226           links,  by replacing many large UDP packets of RIP information with
227           a single, small packet containing a "fake" default route. If metric
228           is  absent,  a  value  of  14 is assumed to limit the spread of the
229           "fake" default route. This is a dangerous feature that,  when  used
230           carelessly, can cause routing loops. Notice also that more than one
231           interface can match the specified network number and mask. See also
232           -g. Use of this option is equivalent to setting the minimize_routes
233           property.
236       -g
238           Used on internetwork routers to offer a route to the "default" des‐
239           tination.  It  is  equivalent to -F 0/0,1 and is present mostly for
240           historical reasons. A better choice is -P pm_rdisc on  the  command
241           line or pm_rdisc in the /etc/gateways file. A larger metric will be
242           used with the latter  alternatives,  reducing  the  spread  of  the
243           potentially dangerous default route. The -g (or -P) option is typi‐
244           cally used on a gateway to the Internet, or on a gateway that  uses
245           another  routing  protocol  whose  routes are not reported to other
246           local routers. Note that because a metric of 1 is used,  this  fea‐
247           ture  is dangerous. Its use more often creates chaos with a routing
248           loop than solves problems. Use of this option is equivalent to set‐
249           ting the offer_default_route property to true.
252       -h
254           Causes host or point-to-point routes not to be advertised, provided
255           there is a network route going the same direction. That is  a  lim‐
256           ited kind of aggregation. This option is useful on gateways to LANs
257           that have other  gateway  machines  connected  with  point-to-point
258           links such as SLIP. Use of this option is equivalent to setting the
259           advertise_host_routes property to false.
262       -m
264           Cause the machine to advertise a host or  point-to-point  route  to
265           its primary interface. It is useful on multi-homed machines such as
266           NFS servers. This option should not be used except when the cost of
267           the  host routes it generates is justified by the popularity of the
268           server. It is effective only when the machine is supplying  routing
269           information,  because  there  is  more  than  one interface. The -m
270           option overrides the -q option to the limited extent of advertising
271           the  host  route.  Use  of this option is equivalent to setting the
272           advertise_host_routes_primary property to true.
275       -n
277           Do not install routes in kernel. By default, routes  are  installed
278           in  the  kernel.  Use  of  this option is equivalent to setting the
279           install_routes property to false.
282       -P params
284           Equivalent to adding the parameter line params to the /etc/gateways
285           file. Can also be set by means of the parameters property.
288       -q
290           Opposite of the -s option. This is the default when only one inter‐
291           face is present. With this explicit option, the daemon is always in
292           "quiet  mode"  for  RIP  and does not supply routing information to
293           other computers. Use of this option is equivalent  to  setting  the
294           quiet_mode property to true.
297       -s
299           Force  in.routed to supply routing information. This is the default
300           if multiple network interfaces are present on which RIP  or  Router
301           Discovery  have  not been disabled, and if the /dev/ip ndd variable
302           ip_forwarding is set to 1. Use of this option is equivalent to set‐
303           ting the supply_routes property to true.
306       -S
308           If  in.routed  is  not acting as an internetwork router, instead of
309           entering the whole routing table in the kernel, it  enters  only  a
310           default route for each internetwork router. This reduces the memory
311           requirements without losing any routing reliability. This option is
312           provided for compatibility with the previous, RIPv1-only in.routed.
313           Use of this option is generally discouraged. Use of this option  is
314           equivalent to setting the default_routes_only property to true.
317       -t
319           Runs  in  the  foreground (as with -d) and logs the contents of the
320           packets received (as with -zz).  This  is  for  compatibility  with
321           prior versions of Solaris and has no SMF equivalent.
324       -T tracefile
326           Increases  the  debugging  level to at least 1 and causes debugging
327           information to be appended to the trace file. Because  of  security
328           concerns,  do  not to run in.routed routinely with tracing directed
329           to a file. Use of this option is equivalent to setting the log_file
330           property to trace file path.
333       -v
335           Enables   debug.   Similar  to  -z,  except,  where  -z  increments
336           trace_level, -v sets trace_level to 1. Also,  -v  requires  the  -T
337           option. Use of this option is equivalent to setting the debug prop‐
338           erty to true.
341       -V
343           Displays the version of the daemon.
346       -z
348           Increase the debugging level, which causes more information  to  be
349           logged  on the tracefile specified with -T or stdout. The debugging
350           level can be increased or decreased with  the  SIGUSR1  or  SIGUSR2
351           signals or with the rtquery(1M) command.


355       /etc/defaultrouter    If  this file is present and contains the address
356                             of a default router, the  system  startup  script
357                             does not run in.routed. See defaultrouter(4).
360       /etc/gateways         List  of  distant gateways and general configura‐
361                             tion options for in.routed. See gateways(4).


365       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
370       ┌─────────────────────────────┬─────────────────────────────┐
371       │      ATTRIBUTE TYPE         │      ATTRIBUTE VALUE        │
372       ├─────────────────────────────┼─────────────────────────────┤
373       │Availability                 │SUNWroute                    │
374       └─────────────────────────────┴─────────────────────────────┘


377       route(1M),    routeadm(1M),    rtquery(1M),    svcadm(1M),    ioctl(2),
378       inet(3SOCKET),  defaultrouter(4), gateways(4), attributes(5), icmp(7P),
379       inet(7P), udp(7P)
382       Internet Transport Protocols, XSIS  028112,  Xerox  System  Integration
383       Standard
386       Routing Information Protocol, v2 (RFC 2453, STD 0056, November 1998)
389       RIP-v2 MD5 Authentication (RFC 2082, January 1997)
392       Routing Information Protocol, v1 (RFC 1058, June 1988)
395       ICMP Router Discovery Messages (RFC 1256, September 1991)


398       In keeping with its intended design, this daemon deviates from RFC 2453
399       in two notable ways:
401           o      By default, in.routed does not discard  authenticated  RIPv2
402                  messages when RIP authentication is not configured. There is
403                  little to gain  from  dropping  authenticated  packets  when
404                  RIPv1  listeners  will  gladly  process  them.  Using the -A
405                  option causes in.routed to conform to the RFC in this case.
407           o      Unauthenticated RIP requests are never discarded, even  when
408                  RIP  authentication is configured. Forwarding tables are not
409                  secret and can be inferred through other means such as  test
410                  traffic. RIP is also the most common router-discovery proto‐
411                  col, and hosts need to send queries that will be answered.
414       in.routed does not always detect  unidirectional  failures  in  network
415       interfaces, for example, when the output side fails.
419SunOS 5.11                        24 Jul 2008                    in.routed(1M)