1MS(7)                  Miscellaneous Information Manual                  MS(7)


6       ms - text formatting macros


9       nroff  -ms  [ options ]  file  ...
10       troff  -ms  [ options ]  file  ...


13       This package of nroff and troff macro definitions provides a formatting
14       facility for various styles of articles, theses, and books.  When  pro‐
15       ducing  2-column  output  on a terminal or lineprinter, or when reverse
16       line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1).  All  exter‐
17       nal  -ms  macros  are defined below.  Many nroff and troff requests are
18       unsafe in conjunction with  this  package.   However,  the  first  four
19       requests  below may be used with impunity after initialization, and the
20       last two may be used even before initialization:
21            .bp    begin new page
22            .br    break output line
23            .sp n  insert n spacing lines
24            .ce n  center next n lines
25            .ls n  line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space
26            .na    no alignment of right margin
27       Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for  exam‐
28       ple,  ``\fIword\fR''  will italicize word.  Output of the tbl, eqn, and
29       refer(1) preprocessors for equations, tables, and references is accept‐
30       able as input.


33       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.x
34       /usr/share/ms/x.???


37       eqn(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1)


40Macro   Initial   Break?   Explanation
41Name    Value     Reset?
42.AB x   -         y      begin abstract; if x=no don't label abstract
43.AE     -         y      end abstract
44.AI     -         y      author's institution
45.AM     -         n      better accent mark definitions
46.AU     -         y      author's name
47.B x    -         n      embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface
48.B1     -         y      begin text to be enclosed in a box
49.B2     -         y      end boxed text and print it
50.BT     date      n      bottom title, printed at foot of page
51.BX x   -         n      print word x in a box
52.CM     if t      n      cut mark between pages
53.CT     -         y,y    chapter title: page number moved to CF (TM only)
54.DA x   if n      n      force date x at bottom of page; today if no x
55.DE     -         y      end display (unfilled text) of any kind
56.DS x y I         y      begin display with keep; x=I,L,C,B; y=indent
57.ID y   8n,.5i    y      indented display with no keep; y=indent
58.LD     -         y      left display with no keep
59.CD     -         y      centered display with no keep
60.BD     -         y      block display; center entire block
61.EF x   -         n      even page footer x (3 part as for .tl)
62.EH x   -         n      even page header x (3 part as for .tl)
63.EN     -         y      end displayed equation produced by eqn
64.EQ x y -         y      break out equation; x=L,I,C; y=equation number
65.FE     -         n      end footnote to be placed at bottom of page
66.FP     -         n      numbered footnote paragraph; may be redefined
67.FS x   -         n      start footnote; x is optional footnote label
68.HD     undef     n      optional page header below header margin
69.I x    -         n      italicize x; if no x, switch to italics
70.IP x y -         y,y    indented paragraph, with hanging tag x; y=indent
71.IX x y -         y      index words x y and so on (up to 5 levels)
72.KE     -         n      end keep of any kind
73.KF     -         n      begin floating keep; text fills remainder of page
74.KS     -         y      begin keep; unit kept together on a single page
75.LG     -         n      larger; increase point size by 2
76.LP     -         y,y    left (block) paragraph.
77.MC x   -         y,y    multiple columns; x=column width
78.ND x   if t      n      no date in page footer; x is date on cover
79.NH x y -         y,y    numbered header; x=level, x=0 resets, x=S sets to y
80.NL     10p       n      set point size back to normal
81.OF x   -         n      odd page footer x (3 part as for .tl)
82.OH x   -         n      odd page header x (3 part as for .tl)
83.P1     if TM     n      print header on 1st page
84.PP     -         y,y    paragraph with first line indented
85.PT     - % -     n      page title, printed at head of page
86.PX x   -         y      print index (table of contents); x=no suppresses title
87.QP     -         y,y    quote paragraph (indented and shorter)
88.R      on        n      return to Roman font
89.RE     5n        y,y    retreat: end level of relative indentation
90.RP x   -         n      released paper format; x=no stops title on 1st page
91.RS     5n        y,y    right shift: start level of relative indentation
92.SH     -         y,y    section header, in boldface
93.SM     -         n      smaller; decrease point size by 2
94.TA     8n,5n     n      set tabs to 8n 16n ... (nroff) 5n 10n ... (troff)
95.TC x   -         y      print table of contents at end; x=no suppresses title
96.TE     -         y      end of table processed by tbl
97.TH     -         y      end multi-page header of table
98.TL     -         y      title in boldface and two points larger
99.TM     off       n      UC Berkeley thesis mode
100.TS x   -         y,y    begin table; if x=H table has multi-page header
101.UL x   -         n      underline x, even in troff
102.UX x   -         n      UNIX; trademark message first time; x appended
103.XA x y -         y      another index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent
104.XE     -         y      end index entry (or series of .IX entries)
105.XP     -         y,y    paragraph with first line exdented, others indented
106.XS x y -         y      begin index entry; x=page or no for none; y=indent
107.1C     on        y,y    one column format, on a new page
108.2C     -         y,y    begin two column format
109.]-     -         n      beginning of refer reference
110.[0     -         n      end of unclassifiable type of reference
111.[N     -         n      N= 1:journal-article, 2:book, 3:book-article, 4:report


114       Formatting distances can be controlled in -ms by means of built-in num‐
115       ber registers.  For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:
116            .nr  LL  6.5i
117       Here is a table of number registers and their default values:
118            Name Register Controls  Takes Effect Default
119            PS   point size         paragraph    10
120            VS   vertical spacing   paragraph    12
121            LL   line length        paragraph    6i
122            LT   title length       next page    same as LL
123            FL   footnote length    next .FS     5.5i
124            PD   paragraph distance paragraph    1v (if n), .3v (if t)
125            DD   display distance   displays     1v (if n), .5v (if t)
126            PI   paragraph indent   paragraph    5n
127            QI   quote indent       next .QP     5n
128            FI   footnote indent    next .FS     2n
129            PO   page offset        next page    0 (if n), ∼1i (if t)
130            HM   header margin      next page    1i
131            FM   footer margin      next page    1i
132            FF   footnote format    next .FS     0 (1, 2, 3 available)
133       When resetting these values,  make  sure  to  specify  the  appropriate
134       units.   Setting the line length to 7, for example, will result in out‐
135       put with one character per line.  Setting FF to 1  suppresses  footnote
136       superscripting;  setting  it  to  2  also suppresses indentation of the
137       first line; and setting it to 3 produces  an  .IP-like  footnote  para‐
138       graph.
140       Here  is  a list of string registers available in -ms; they may be used
141       anywhere in the text:
142            Name  String's Function
143            \*Q   quote (" in nroff, `` in troff )
144            \*U   unquote (" in nroff, '' in troff )
145            \*-   dash (-- in nroff, — in troff )
146            \*(MO month (month of the year)
147            \*(DY day (current date)
148            \**   automatically numbered footnote
149            \*´   acute accent (before letter)
150            \*`   grave accent (before letter)
151            \*^   circumflex (before letter)
152            \*,   cedilla (before letter)
153            \*:   umlaut (before letter)
154            \*~   tilde (before letter)
155       When using the extended accent mark  definitions  available  with  .AM,
156       these  strings  should come after, rather than before, the letter to be
157       accented.


160       Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to  the  same  space,  so
161       they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.
1654th Berkeley Distribution      October 23, 1996                          MS(7)