1REFER(1)                    General Commands Manual                   REFER(1)


6       refer - find and insert literature references in documents


9       refer [ -a ] [ -b ] [ -c ] [ -e ] [ -fn ] [ -kx ] [ -lm,n ] [ -n ] [ -p
10       bib ] [ -skeys ] [ -Bl.m ] [ -P ] [ -S ] [ file ... ]


13       Refer is a preprocessor for nroff or troff(1) that  finds  and  formats
14       references for footnotes or endnotes.  It is also the base for a series
15       of programs designed to index, search, sort, and print stand-alone bib‐
16       liographies, or other data entered in the appropriate form.
18       Given  an incomplete citation with sufficiently precise keywords, refer
19       will search a bibliographic database for  references  containing  these
20       keywords  anywhere  in the title, author, journal, etc.  The input file
21       (or standard input) is copied to  standard  output,  except  for  lines
22       between  .[  and  .] delimiters, which are assumed to contain keywords,
23       and are replaced by information from the bibliographic  database.   The
24       user  may  also search different databases, override particular fields,
25       or add new fields.  The  reference  data,  from  whatever  source,  are
26       assigned to a set of troff strings.  Macro packages such as ms(7) print
27       the finished reference text from these strings.  By default  references
28       are flagged by footnote numbers.
30       The following options are available:
32       -an   Reverse  the  first n author names (Jones, J. A. instead of J. A.
33             Jones).  If n is omitted all author names are reversed.
35       -b    Bare mode: do not put any flags  in  text  (neither  numbers  nor
36             labels).
38       -ckeys
39             Capitalize  (with  CAPS  SMALL CAPS) the fields whose key-letters
40             are in keys.
42       -e    Instead of leaving the references where  encountered,  accumulate
43             them until a sequence of the form
44                  .[
45                  $LIST$
46                  .]
47             is  encountered,  and  then write out all references collected so
48             far.  Collapse references to same source.
50       -fn   Set the footnote number to n instead of the default of  1  (one).
51             With labels rather than numbers, this flag is a no-op.
53       -kx   Instead  of  numbering  references,  use labels as specified in a
54             reference data line beginning %x; by default x is L.
56       -lm,n Instead of numbering references, use labels made from the  senior
57             author's last name and the year of publication.  Only the first m
58             letters of the last name and the last n digits of  the  date  are
59             used.   If  either  m  or  n  is  omitted the entire name or date
60             respectively is used.
62       -n    Do not search the default file /usr/dict/papers/Ind.  If there is
63             a REFER environment variable, the specified file will be searched
64             instead of the default file; in this case  the  -n  flag  has  no
65             effect.
67       -p bib
68             Take  the  next  argument  bib  as  a  file  of  references to be
69             searched.  The default file is searched last.
71       -skeys
72             Sort references by fields  whose  key-letters  are  in  the  keys
73             string;  permute  reference numbers in text accordingly.  Implies
74             -e.  The key-letters in keys may be followed by a number to indi‐
75             cate  how many such fields are used, with + taken as a very large
76             number.  The default is AD which sorts on the senior  author  and
77             then  date;  to sort, for example, on all authors and then title,
78             use -sA+T.
80       -Bl.m Bibliography mode.  Take a file composed of records separated  by
81             blank  lines,  and  turn  them into troff input.  Label l will be
82             turned into the macro .m with l defaulting to %X and .m  default‐
83             ing to .AP (annotation paragraph).
85       -P    Place punctuation marks .,:;?! after the reference signal, rather
86             than before.  (Periods and commas used to be done with strings.)
88       -S    Produce references in the Natural or Social Science format.
90       To use your own references, put them in  the  format  described  below.
91       They  can be searched more rapidly by running indxbib(1) on them before
92       using refer; failure to index results in a linear search.   When  refer
93       is  used with the eqn, neqn or tbl preprocessors refer should be first,
94       to minimize the volume of data passed through pipes.
96       The refer preprocessor and associated programs expect input from a file
97       of  references  composed of records separated by blank lines.  A record
98       is a set of lines (fields), each containing one  kind  of  information.
99       Fields  start  on a line beginning with a ``%'', followed by a key-let‐
100       ter, then a blank, and finally the contents of the field, and  continue
101       until  the next line starting with ``%''.  The output ordering and for‐
102       matting of fields is controlled by the macros specified for nroff/troff
103       (for  footnotes  and  endnotes)  or roffbib (for stand-alone bibliogra‐
104       phies).  For a list of the most common  key-letters  and  their  corre‐
105       sponding  fields,  see addbib(1).  An example of a refer entry is given
106       below.


109       %A   M. E. Lesk
110       %T   Some Applications of Inverted Indexes on the UNIX System
111       %B   UNIX Programmer's Manual
112       %V   2b
113       %I   Bell Laboratories
114       %C   Murray Hill, NJ
115       %D   1978


118       /usr/dict/papers  directory of default publication lists
119       /usr/libexec/refer  directory of companion programs


122       addbib(1), sortbib(1), roffbib(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1)


125       Mike Lesk


128       Blank spaces at the end of lines in bibliography fields will cause  the
129       records to sort and reverse incorrectly.  Sorting large numbers of ref‐
130       erences causes a core dump.
1347th Edition                    October 22, 1996                       REFER(1)