REFER(1) General Commands Manual REFER(1)
refer - find and insert literature references in documents
refer [ -a ] [ -b ] [ -c ] [ -e ] [ -fn ] [ -kx ] [ -lm,n ] [ -n ] [ -p
bib ] [ -skeys ] [ -Bl.m ] [ -P ] [ -S ] [ file ... ]
Refer is a preprocessor for nroff or troff(1) that finds and formats
references for footnotes or endnotes. It is also the base for a series
of programs designed to index, search, sort, and print stand-alone bib‐
liographies, or other data entered in the appropriate form.
Given an incomplete citation with sufficiently precise keywords, refer
will search a bibliographic database for references containing these
keywords anywhere in the title, author, journal, etc. The input file
(or standard input) is copied to standard output, except for lines
between .[ and .] delimiters, which are assumed to contain keywords,
and are replaced by information from the bibliographic database. The
user may also search different databases, override particular fields,
or add new fields. The reference data, from whatever source, are
assigned to a set of troff strings. Macro packages such as ms(7) print
the finished reference text from these strings. By default references
are flagged by footnote numbers.
The following options are available:
-an Reverse the first n author names (Jones, J. A. instead of J. A.
Jones). If n is omitted all author names are reversed.
-b Bare mode: do not put any flags in text (neither numbers nor
Capitalize (with CAPS SMALL CAPS) the fields whose key-letters
are in keys.
-e Instead of leaving the references where encountered, accumulate
them until a sequence of the form
is encountered, and then write out all references collected so
far. Collapse references to same source.
-fn Set the footnote number to n instead of the default of 1 (one).
With labels rather than numbers, this flag is a no-op.
-kx Instead of numbering references, use labels as specified in a
reference data line beginning %x; by default x is L.
-lm,n Instead of numbering references, use labels made from the senior
author's last name and the year of publication. Only the first m
letters of the last name and the last n digits of the date are
used. If either m or n is omitted the entire name or date
respectively is used.
-n Do not search the default file /usr/dict/papers/Ind. If there is
a REFER environment variable, the specified file will be searched
instead of the default file; in this case the -n flag has no
Take the next argument bib as a file of references to be
searched. The default file is searched last.
Sort references by fields whose key-letters are in the keys
string; permute reference numbers in text accordingly. Implies
-e. The key-letters in keys may be followed by a number to indi‐
cate how many such fields are used, with + taken as a very large
number. The default is AD which sorts on the senior author and
then date; to sort, for example, on all authors and then title,
-Bl.m Bibliography mode. Take a file composed of records separated by
blank lines, and turn them into troff input. Label l will be
turned into the macro .m with l defaulting to %X and .m default‐
ing to .AP (annotation paragraph).
-P Place punctuation marks .,:;?! after the reference signal, rather
than before. (Periods and commas used to be done with strings.)
-S Produce references in the Natural or Social Science format.
To use your own references, put them in the format described below.
They can be searched more rapidly by running indxbib(1) on them before
using refer; failure to index results in a linear search. When refer
is used with the eqn, neqn or tbl preprocessors refer should be first,
to minimize the volume of data passed through pipes.
The refer preprocessor and associated programs expect input from a file
of references composed of records separated by blank lines. A record
is a set of lines (fields), each containing one kind of information.
Fields start on a line beginning with a ``%'', followed by a key-let‐
ter, then a blank, and finally the contents of the field, and continue
until the next line starting with ``%''. The output ordering and for‐
matting of fields is controlled by the macros specified for nroff/troff
(for footnotes and endnotes) or roffbib (for stand-alone bibliogra‐
phies). For a list of the most common key-letters and their corre‐
sponding fields, see addbib(1). An example of a refer entry is given
%A M. E. Lesk
%T Some Applications of Inverted Indexes on the UNIX System
%B UNIX Programmer's Manual
%I Bell Laboratories
%C Murray Hill, NJ
/usr/dict/papers directory of default publication lists
/usr/libexec/refer directory of companion programs
addbib(1), sortbib(1), roffbib(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1)
Blank spaces at the end of lines in bibliography fields will cause the
records to sort and reverse incorrectly. Sorting large numbers of ref‐
erences causes a core dump.
7th Edition October 22, 1996 REFER(1)