1FIND(1)                     General Commands Manual                    FIND(1)


6       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy


9       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]


12       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
13       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
14       given  expression  from left to right, according to the rules of prece‐
15       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome  is  known  (the  left
16       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which point
17       find moves on to the next file name.
19       If you are using find in an environment  where  security  is  important
20       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
21       writable by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"
22       chapter  of  the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
23       and comes with findutils.   That document  also  includes  a  lot  more
24       detail  and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more
25       useful source of information.


28       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic  links.
29       Command-line  arguments  following these are taken to be names of files
30       or directories to be examined, up to the  first  argument  that  begins
31       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
32       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is  to  be
33       searched  for.   If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
34       If no expression is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
35       should probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).
37       This  manual  page  talks  about  `options' within the expression list.
38       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi‐
39       ately after the last path name.  The five `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D
40       and -O must appear before the first path name, if  at  all.   A  double
41       dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining arguments are not
42       options (though ensuring that all start points begin with  either  `./'
43       or  `/'  is  generally  safer if you use wildcards in the list of start
44       points).
46       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
47              When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
48              a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
49              properties of the symbolic link itself.
52       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
53              about files, the information used shall be taken from the  prop‐
54              erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
55              itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
56              examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
57              implies -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option,  -noleaf  will
58              still  be  in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
59              symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec‐
60              tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.
62              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
63              match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link  points
64              to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro‐
65              ken).  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates  always
66              to return false.
69       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com‐
70              mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
71              about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop‐
72              erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
73              behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym‐
74              bolic link, and the link can be resolved.  For  that  situation,
75              the  information  used is taken from whatever the link points to
76              (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the link
77              itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym‐
78              bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
79              the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
80              directory, the contents  of  that  directory  will  be  examined
81              (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).
83       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth‐
84       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
85       is  the  default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
86       unless either -H or -L is specified.
88       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
89       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
90       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
91       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
92       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
93       command  line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
94       have been saved.  If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
95       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
96       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
97       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
98       of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
99       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
100       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.
102       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
103       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
104       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con‐
105       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.
107       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
108       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
109       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
110       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).
113       -D debugoptions
114              Print diagnostic information; this can be  helpful  to  diagnose
115              problems  with why find is not doing what you want.  The list of
116              debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility  of  the
117              debug  options  is not guaranteed between releases of findutils.
118              For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
119              find -D help.  Valid debug options include
121              help   Explain the debugging options
123              tree   Show  the  expression  tree in its original and optimised
124                     form.
126              stat   Print messages as files are examined with  the  stat  and
127                     lstat  system  calls.  The find program tries to minimise
128                     such calls.
130              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to  the  optimisa‐
131                     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.
133              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate suc‐
134                     ceeded or failed.
136       -Olevel
137              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to
138              speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
139              predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to  each
140              other.   The  optimisations performed at each optimisation level
141              are as follows.
143              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.
145              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to
146                     the  traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
147                     that tests based only on the names of files (for  example
148                     -name and -regex) are performed first.
150              2      Any  -type  or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
151                     based only on the names of files, but  before  any  tests
152                     that  require information from the inode.  On many modern
153                     versions of Unix, file types are  returned  by  readdir()
154                     and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than pred‐
155                     icates which need to stat the file first.
157              3      At this optimisation level,  the  full  cost-based  query
158                     optimiser  is enabled.  The order of tests is modified so
159                     that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more
160                     expensive ones are performed later, if necessary.  Within
161                     each cost band, predicates are evaluated earlier or later
162                     according  to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.
163                     For -o, predicates which are likely to succeed are evalu‐
164                     ated  earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely to
165                     fail are evaluated earlier.
167              The cost-based optimiser has a fixed  idea  of  how  likely  any
168              given  test  is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes
169              account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f
170              is  assumed  to  be  more  likely to succeed than -type c).  The
171              cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it  does
172              not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
173              again.  Conversely, optimisations that  prove  to  be  reliable,
174              robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels
175              over time.  However, the default  behaviour  (i.e.  optimisation
176              level  1)  will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The
177              findutils test suite runs all the tests on find at each  optimi‐
178              sation level and ensures that the result is the same.


181       The  expression  is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
182       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
183       tests  (which  return  a  true or false value), and actions (which have
184       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by opera‐
185       tors.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.
187       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is per‐
188       formed on all files for which the expression is true.
192       All options always return true.   Except  for  -daystart,  -follow  and
193       -regextype,  the  options  affect  all tests, including tests specified
194       before the option.  This is because the options are processed when  the
195       command  line  is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files
196       are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options  are  dif‐
197       ferent  in  this respect, and have an effect only on tests which appear
198       later in the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place
199       them  at  the  beginning of the expression.  A warning is issued if you
200       don't do this.
203       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
204              MacOS X and OpenBSD.
207       -daystart
208              Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
209              -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24  hours
210              ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later on the
211              command line.
214       -depth Process each directory's contents before the  directory  itself.
215              The -delete action also implies -depth.
218       -follow
219              Deprecated;  use  the  -L  option instead.  Dereference symbolic
220              links.  Implies -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only  those
221              tests  which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the -H
222              or -L option has been specified, the  position  of  the  -follow
223              option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
224              listed as the argument of -newer will be  dereferenced  if  they
225              are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
226              -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always
227              match  against  the type of the file that a symbolic link points
228              to rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname
229              and -ilname predicates always to return false.
232       -help, --help
233              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.
236       -ignore_readdir_race
237              Normally,  find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
238              a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
239              the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
240              the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
241              issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names
242              are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
243              time  the  command  line  is  read,  which means that you cannot
244              search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
245              of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
246              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
247              one without it).
250       -maxdepth levels
251              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc‐
252              tories below the command line arguments.  -maxdepth 0
253               means only apply the tests and  actions  to  the  command  line
254              arguments.
257       -mindepth levels
258              Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
259              non-negative integer).  -mindepth  1  means  process  all  files
260              except the command line arguments.
263       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
264              name for -xdev, for compatibility with some  other  versions  of
265              find.
268       -noignore_readdir_race
269              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.
272       -noleaf
273              Do  not  optimize  by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
274              subdirectories than their  hard  link  count.   This  option  is
275              needed  when  searching  filesystems that do not follow the Unix
276              directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS  filesystems
277              or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
278              filesystem has at least 2 hard  links:  its  name  and  its  `.'
279              entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each have a
280              `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
281              directory,  after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
282              directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
283              the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
284              tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
285              no  need  to  stat  them;  this  gives a significant increase in
286              search speed.
289       -regextype type
290              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
291              -iregex tests which occur later on the command line.  Currently-
292              implemented types are emacs (this is  the  default),  posix-awk,
293              posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.
296       -version, --version
297              Print the find version number and exit.
300       -warn, -nowarn
301              Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to
302              the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find  might
303              encounter  when  it searches directories.  The default behaviour
304              corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to  -nowarn
305              otherwise.
308       -xautofs
309              Don't descend directories on autofs filesystems.
312       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.
315   TESTS
316       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow comparison
317       between the file currently being examined and some reference file spec‐
318       ified  on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta‐
319       tion of the reference file is determined by the options -H, -L  and  -P
320       and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,
321       at the time the command line is parsed.  If the reference  file  cannot
322       be  examined  (for  example,  the stat(2) system call fails for it), an
323       error message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.
325       Numeric arguments can be specified as
327       +n     for greater than n,
329       -n     for less than n,
331       n      for exactly n.
333       -amin n
334              File was last accessed n minutes ago.
337       -anewer file
338              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
339              file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
340              effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.
343       -atime n
344              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
345              how  many  24-hour  periods  ago the file was last accessed, any
346              fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
347              have been accessed at least two days ago.
350       -cmin n
351              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.
354       -cnewer file
355              File's status was last changed more recently than file was modi‐
356              fied.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the  -L
357              option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time of the file it
358              points to is always used.
361       -ctime n
362              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
363              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
364              of file status change times.
367       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.
370       -executable
371              Matches files which are executable  and  directories  which  are
372              searchable  (in  a file name resolution sense).  This takes into
373              account access control lists  and  other  permissions  artefacts
374              which  the  -perm  test  ignores.   This  test  makes use of the
375              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
376              do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
377              access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use  of  the
378              UID  mapping  information held on the server.  Because this test
379              is based only on the result of the access(2) system call,  there
380              is  no  guarantee  that  a file for which this test succeeds can
381              actually be executed.
384       -false Always false.
387       -fstype type
388              File is on a filesystem of  type  type.   The  valid  filesystem
389              types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
390              of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
391              another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
392              use -printf with the %F directive  to  see  the  types  of  your
393              filesystems.
396       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.
399       -group gname
400              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).
403       -ilname pattern
404              Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
405              option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this  test  returns
406              false unless the symbolic link is broken.
409       -iname pattern
410              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
411              patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file  names  `Foo',  `FOO',
412              `foo',  `fOo',  etc.   In these patterns, unlike filename expan‐
413              sion by the shell, an initial `.' can be matched by  `*'.   That
414              is, find -name *bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please note
415              that you should quote patterns as a matter of course,  otherwise
416              the shell will expand any wildcard characters in them.
419       -inum n
420              File  has  inode  number  n.   It  is normally easier to use the
421              -samefile test instead.
424       -ipath pattern
425              Behaves in the same way as -iwholename.  This option  is  depre‐
426              cated, so please do not use it.
429       -iregex pattern
430              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.
433       -iwholename pattern
434              Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.
437       -links n
438              File has n links.
441       -lname pattern
442              File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat‐
443              tern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If
444              the  -L  option  or  the  -follow option is in effect, this test
445              returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.
448       -mmin n
449              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.
452       -mtime n
453              File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
454              for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
455              of file modification times.
458       -name pattern
459              Base of  file  name  (the  path  with  the  leading  directories
460              removed)  matches  shell  pattern  pattern.   The metacharacters
461              (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the  base  name
462              (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON‐
463              FORMANCE below).  To ignore a directory and the files under  it,
464              use  -prune; see an example in the description of -path.  Braces
465              are not recognised as being special, despite the fact that  some
466              shells  including  Bash  imbue  braces with a special meaning in
467              shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed with the use
468              of  the  fnmatch(3)  library function.   Don't forget to enclose
469              the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from  expansion  by
470              the shell.
473       -newer file
474              File  was  modified  more recently than file.  If file is a sym‐
475              bolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,  the
476              modification time of the file it points to is always used.
479       -newerXY reference
480              Compares  the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The
481              reference argument is normally the name of a file  (and  one  of
482              its  timestamps is used for the comparison) but it may also be a
483              string describing an absolute time.  X and  Y  are  placeholders
484              for other letters, and these letters select which time belonging
485              to how reference is used for the comparison.
487              a   The access time of the file reference
488              B   The birth time of the file reference
489              c   The inode status change time of reference
490              m   The modification time of the file reference
491              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time
493              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for  X
494              to  be t.  Some combinations are not implemented on all systems;
495              for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or
496              unsupported  combination  of  XY  is  specified,  a  fatal error
497              results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for  the  argu‐
498              ment  to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth
499              time of a reference file, and the birth time  cannot  be  deter‐
500              mined,  a  fatal  error  message results.  If you specify a test
501              which refers to the birth time of  files  being  examined,  this
502              test will fail for any files where the birth time is unknown.
505       -nogroup
506              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.
509       -nouser
510              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.
513       -path pattern
514              File  name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do
515              not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
516                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
517              will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if  one
518              exists).   To  ignore  a whole directory tree, use -prune rather
519              than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip  the
520              directory  `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it,
521              and print the names of the other files found, do something  like
522              this:
523                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
524              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
525              starting from one of the start points named on the command line.
526              It  would  only  make sense to use an absolute path name here if
527              the relevant start point is also an absolute path.   This  means
528              that this command will never match anything:
529                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
530              The  predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will be
531              in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.
534       -perm mode
535              File's permission bits are exactly  mode  (octal  or  symbolic).
536              Since  an  exact match is required, if you want to use this form
537              for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
538              mode  string.   For  example  `-perm  g=w' will only match files
539              which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group  write  per‐
540              mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
541              will want to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example `-perm -g=w',
542              which  matches  any  file  with group write permission.  See the
543              EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.
546       -perm -mode
547              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
548              modes  are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way in
549              which would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or  `o'
550              if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
551              illustrative examples.
554       -perm /mode
555              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
556              modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify `u', `g' or
557              `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the  EXAMPLES  section  for
558              some  illustrative  examples.  If no permission bits in mode are
559              set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to be  consis‐
560              tent with the behaviour of -perm -000).
563       -perm +mode
564              Deprecated,  old way of searching for files with any of the per‐
565              mission bits in mode set.  You should use -perm  /mode  instead.
566              Trying to use the `+' syntax with symbolic modes will yield sur‐
567              prising results.  For example, `+u+x' is a valid  symbolic  mode
568              (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be eval‐
569              uated as -perm +mode but instead as  the  exact  mode  specifier
570              -perm  mode  and so it matches files with exact permissions 0111
571              instead of files with any execute bit set.  If  you  found  this
572              paragraph  confusing,  you're  not alone - just use -perm /mode.
573              This form of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the  POSIX
574              specification  requires  the  interpretation of a leading `+' as
575              being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched to  using  `/'
576              instead.
579       -readable
580              Matches  files  which  are  readable.   This  takes into account
581              access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the
582              -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
583              call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do  UID  mapping
584              (or  root-squashing),  since many systems implement access(2) in
585              the client's kernel and so cannot make use of  the  UID  mapping
586              information held on the server.
589       -regex pattern
590              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
591              on the whole path, not a search.  For example, to match  a  file
592              named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
593              `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
594              by  find  are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
595              be changed with the -regextype option.
598       -samefile name
599              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
600              this can include symbolic links.
603       -size n[cwbkMG]
604              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:
606              `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
607                     used)
609              `c'    for bytes
611              `w'    for two-byte words
613              `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)
615              `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)
617              `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)
619              The size does not count  indirect  blocks,  but  it  does  count
620              blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
621              mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf  handle
622              sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
623              512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
624              to the behaviour of -ls.
627       -true  Always true.
630       -type c
631              File is of type c:
633              b      block (buffered) special
635              c      character (unbuffered) special
637              d      directory
639              p      named pipe (FIFO)
641              f      regular file
643              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
644                     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
645                     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
646                     is in effect, use -xtype.
648              s      socket
650              D      door (Solaris)
652       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.
655       -used n
656              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.
659       -user uname
660              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).
663       -wholename pattern
664              See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.
667       -writable
668              Matches files which  are  writable.   This  takes  into  account
669              access  control  lists and other permissions artefacts which the
670              -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
671              call,  and  so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
672              (or root-squashing), since many systems implement  access(2)  in
673              the  client's  kernel  and so cannot make use of the UID mapping
674              information held on the server.
677       -xtype c
678              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym‐
679              bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
680              file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
681              given,  true  if  c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic links,
682              -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.
684       -context pattern
685              (SELinux only) Security context of the file  matches  glob  pat‐
686              tern.
690       -delete
691              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed,
692              an error message is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit  sta‐
693              tus  will be nonzero (when it eventually exits).  Use of -delete
694              automatically turns on the `-depth' option.
696              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line  is  evaluated
697              as an expression, so putting -delete first will make find try to
698              delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When
699              testing  a  find  command line that you later intend to use with
700              -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to  avoid
701              later  surprises.   Because  -delete  implies -depth, you cannot
702              usefully use -prune and -delete together.
705       -exec command ;
706              Execute command; true if 0 status is  returned.   All  following
707              arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
708              an argument consisting of `;' is encountered.  The  string  `{}'
709              is  replaced by the current file name being processed everywhere
710              it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
711              where  it  is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these
712              constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
713              protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES sec‐
714              tion for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified
715              command  is run once for each matched file.  The command is exe‐
716              cuted in the starting directory.   There are  unavoidable  secu‐
717              rity  problems  surrounding  use of the -exec action; you should
718              use the -execdir option instead.
721       -exec command {} +
722              This variant of the -exec action runs the specified  command  on
723              the  selected  files, but the command line is built by appending
724              each selected file name at the end; the total number of  invoca‐
725              tions  of  the  command  will  be  much  less than the number of
726              matched files.  The command line is built in much the  same  way
727              that  xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}'
728              is allowed within the command.  The command is executed  in  the
729              starting directory.
732       -execdir command ;
734       -execdir command {} +
735              Like  -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirec‐
736              tory containing the matched file,  which  is  not  normally  the
737              directory  in  which  you started find.  This a much more secure
738              method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions  dur‐
739              ing  resolution  of the paths to the matched files.  As with the
740              -exec action, the `+' form of -execdir will build a command line
741              to  process more than one matched file, but any given invocation
742              of command will only list files that exist in the same subdirec‐
743              tory.   If  you use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH
744              environment variable  does  not  reference  `.';  otherwise,  an
745              attacker  can run any commands they like by leaving an appropri‐
746              ately-named file in a directory in which you will run  -execdir.
747              The  same  applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty or
748              which are not absolute directory names.
751       -fls file
752              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
753              is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
754              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
755              characters in filenames are handled.
758       -fprint file
759              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
760              exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,  it  is
761              truncated.   The  file names `/dev/stdout' and `/dev/stderr' are
762              handled specially; they refer to the standard output  and  stan‐
763              dard error output, respectively.  The output file is always cre‐
764              ated, even if the predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL
765              FILENAMES  section  for information about how unusual characters
766              in filenames are handled.
769       -fprint0 file
770              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The  output
771              file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
772              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
773              unusual characters in filenames are handled.
776       -fprintf file format
777              True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
778              file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
779              See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for information about how
780              unusual characters in filenames are handled.
783       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on  standard  output.
784              The  block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment vari‐
785              able POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte  blocks  are
786              used.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about
787              how unusual characters in filenames are handled.
790       -ok command ;
791              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run  the
792              command.   Otherwise  just return false.  If the command is run,
793              its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.
796              The response to the prompt is matched against a pair of  regular
797              expressions  to  determine  if  it is an affirmative or negative
798              response.  This regular expression is obtained from  the  system
799              if  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or other‐
800              wise from find's message translations.  If  the  system  has  no
801              suitable  definition,  find's  own definition will be used.   In
802              either case, the interpretation of the regular expression itself
803              will  be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE' (char‐
804              acter classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character  ranges  and  equiva‐
805              lence classes).
810       -okdir command ;
811              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.
812              If the user does not agree, just return false.  If  the  command
813              is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.
816       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
817              by a newline.   If you  are  piping  the  output  of  find  into
818              another  program  and there is the faintest possibility that the
819              files which you are searching for might contain a newline,  then
820              you  should  seriously consider using the -print0 option instead
821              of -print.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information
822              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.
825       -print0
826              True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
827              by a null character  (instead  of  the  newline  character  that
828              -print  uses).   This allows file names that contain newlines or
829              other types of white space to be correctly interpreted  by  pro‐
830              grams  that process the find output.  This option corresponds to
831              the -0 option of xargs.
834       -printf format
835              True; print format on  the  standard  output,  interpreting  `\'
836              escapes  and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can be
837              specified as with the `printf' C  function.   Please  note  that
838              many  of  the  fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and this
839              may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.   This  also
840              means  that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-
841              aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at  the
842              end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:
844              \a     Alarm bell.
846              \b     Backspace.
848              \c     Stop  printing from this format immediately and flush the
849                     output.
851              \f     Form feed.
853              \n     Newline.
855              \r     Carriage return.
857              \t     Horizontal tab.
859              \v     Vertical tab.
861              \0     ASCII NUL.
863              \\     A literal backslash (`\').
865              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).
867              A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
868              ordinary character, so they both are printed.
870              %%     A literal percent sign.
872              %a     File's  last  access time in the format returned by the C
873                     `ctime' function.
875              %Ak    File's last access time in the  format  specified  by  k,
876                     which  is  either `@' or a directive for the C `strftime'
877                     function.  The possible values for k  are  listed  below;
878                     some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due
879                     to differences in `strftime' between systems.
881                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with  frac‐
882                            tional part.
884                     Time fields:
886                     H      hour (00..23)
888                     I      hour (01..12)
890                     k      hour ( 0..23)
892                     l      hour ( 1..12)
894                     M      minute (00..59)
896                     p      locale's AM or PM
898                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)
900                     S      Second  (00.00  ..  61.00).  There is a fractional
901                            part.
903                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)
905                     +      Date and  time,  separated  by  `+',  for  example
906                            `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU extension.
907                            The time is given in the current  timezone  (which
908                            may  be  affected  by  setting  the TZ environment
909                            variable).  The seconds  field  includes  a  frac‐
910                            tional part.
912                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S)
914                     Z      time  zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
915                            is determinable
917                     Date fields:
919                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)
921                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length  (Sun‐
922                            day..Saturday)
924                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)
926                     B      locale's  full  month name, variable length (Janu‐
927                            ary..December)
929                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov  04  12:02:33  EST
930                            1989).  The format is the same as for ctime(3) and
931                            so to preserve  compatibility  with  that  format,
932                            there is no fractional part in the seconds field.
934                     d      day of month (01..31)
936                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)
938                     h      same as b
940                     j      day of year (001..366)
942                     m      month (01..12)
944                     U      week  number  of  year with Sunday as first day of
945                            week (00..53)
947                     w      day of week (0..6)
949                     W      week number of year with Monday as  first  day  of
950                            week (00..53)
952                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)
954                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)
956                     Y      year (1970...)
958              %b     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 512-byte
959                     blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
960                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
961                     %s/512, but it can also be  smaller  if  the  file  is  a
962                     sparse file.
964              %c     File's  last status change time in the format returned by
965                     the C `ctime' function.
967              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
968                     k, which is the same as for %A.
970              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
971                     command line argument.
973              %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the  st_dev
974                     field of struct stat), in decimal.
976              %f     File's  name  with  any leading directories removed (only
977                     the last element).
979              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
980                     used for -fstype.
982              %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
983                     no name.
985              %G     File's numeric group ID.
987              %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last ele‐
988                     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
989                     in the current directory) the  %h  specifier  expands  to
990                     ".".
992              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.
994              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).
996              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
997                     Since  disk  space  is  allocated  in  multiples  of  the
998                     filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually  greater  than
999                     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file  is  a
1000                     sparse file.
1002              %l     Object  of  symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
1003                     symbolic link).
1005              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses  the
1006                     `traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
1007                     use,  but  if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
1008                     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
1009                     a difference between the actual value of the file's  mode
1010                     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
1011                     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you  should
1012                     use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').
1014              %M     File's  permissions  (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This
1015                     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.
1017              %n     Number of hard links to file.
1019              %p     File's name.
1021              %P     File's name with the name of the  command  line  argument
1022                     under which it was found removed.
1024              %s     File's size in bytes.
1026              %S     File's   sparseness.    This  is  calculated  as  (BLOCK‐
1027                     SIZE*st_blocks / st_size).  The exact value you will  get
1028                     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen‐
1029                     dent.  However, normally sparse files  will  have  values
1030                     less  than  1.0,  and files which use indirect blocks may
1031                     have a value which is greater than 1.0.   The value  used
1032                     for  BLOCKSIZE  is  system-dependent,  but is usually 512
1033                     bytes.   If the file size is zero, the value  printed  is
1034                     undefined.   On systems which lack support for st_blocks,
1035                     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.
1037              %t     File's last modification time in the format  returned  by
1038                     the C `ctime' function.
1040              %Tk    File's  last modification time in the format specified by
1041                     k, which is the same as for %A.
1043              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user  has  no
1044                     name.
1046              %U     File's numeric user ID.
1048              %y     File's  type  (like  in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
1049                     happen)
1051              %Y     File's type (like  %y),  plus  follow  symlinks:  L=loop,
1052                     N=nonexistent
1054              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.
1056              A  `%'  character  followed by any other character is discarded,
1057              but the other character is printed (don't rely on this, as  fur‐
1058              ther  format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end of
1059              the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
1060              following  character.   In  some  locales, it may hide your door
1061              keys, while in others it may remove  the  final  page  from  the
1062              novel you are reading.
1064              The  %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the
1065              other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
1066              directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
1067              and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the  align‐
1068              ment  of  a field from right-justified (which is the default) to
1069              left-justified.
1071              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES  section  for  information  about  how
1072              unusual characters in filenames are handled.
1076       -prune True;  if  the  file  is a directory, do not descend into it. If
1077              -depth is given, false;  no  effect.   Because  -delete  implies
1078              -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.
1081       -quit  Exit  immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but
1082              no more paths specified on the command line will  be  processed.
1083              For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
1084              /tmp/foo.  Any command lines  which  have  been  built  up  with
1085              -execdir  ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit
1086              status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
1087              already occurred.
1091       Many  of  the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is
1092       under the control of other users.  This  includes  file  names,  sizes,
1093       modification  times  and  so forth.  File names are a potential problem
1094       since they can contain any character  except  `\0'  and  `/'.   Unusual
1095       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
1096       to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of  your  function
1097       keys on some terminals).  Unusual characters are handled differently by
1098       various actions, as described below.
1101       -print0, -fprint0
1102              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the  output
1103              is going to a terminal.
1106       -ls, -fls
1107              Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
1108              and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
1109              (for  example `\f', `\"').  Other unusual characters are printed
1110              using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
1111              -fls  these  are  the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
1112              printed as-is.
1115       -printf, -fprintf
1116              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is  printed  as-is.
1117              Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
1118              directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
1119              are  not  under control of files' owners, and so are printed as-
1120              is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
1121              %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' own‐
1122              ers but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the  ter‐
1123              minal,  and  so these are printed as-is.  The directives %f, %h,
1124              %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
1125              way  as  for  GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as
1126              the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to  decide  what
1127              format  to use for the output of find then it is normally better
1128              to use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as  file  names
1129              can  contain white space and newline characters.  The setting of
1130              the `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to  determine  which
1131              characters need to be quoted.
1134       -print, -fprint
1135              Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
1136              If you are using find in a script or in a  situation  where  the
1137              matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
1138              using -print0 instead of -print.
1140       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This  may
1141       change in a future release.
1145       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:
1148       ( expr )
1149              Force  precedence.   Since parentheses are special to the shell,
1150              you will normally need to quote them.  Many of the  examples  in
1151              this  manual  page  use  backslashes for this purpose: `\(...\)'
1152              instead of `(...)'.
1155       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character will  also  usually  need
1156              protection from interpretation by the shell.
1159       -not expr
1160              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.
1163       expr1 expr2
1164              Two  expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied
1165              "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.
1168       expr1 -a expr2
1169              Same as expr1 expr2.
1172       expr1 -and expr2
1173              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.
1176       expr1 -o expr2
1177              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.
1180       expr1 -or expr2
1181              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.
1184       expr1 , expr2
1185              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The  value  of
1186              expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.
1187              The comma operator can be useful for searching for several  dif‐
1188              ferent  types  of thing, but traversing the filesystem hierarchy
1189              only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the  various
1190              matched items into several different output files.


1195       For  closest  compliance  to  the  POSIX  standard,  you should set the
1196       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are speci‐
1197       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):
1200       -H     This option is supported.
1203       -L     This option is supported.
1206       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the
1207              POSIX conformance of the system's fnmatch(3)  library  function.
1208              As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]'
1209              for example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC  inter‐
1210              pretation  126  requires  this.   This is a change from previous
1211              versions of findutils.
1214       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l',  `p',  `f'  and
1215              `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the
1216              OS provides these.
1219       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is according  to  the
1220              "yes"  and  "no"  patterns selected by setting the `LC_MESSAGES'
1221              environment variable.  When  the  `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment
1222              variable is set, these patterns are taken system's definition of
1223              a positive (yes) or negative (no)  response.  See  the  system's
1224              documentation  for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR and
1225              NOEXPR.    When `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the  patterns  are
1226              instead taken from find's own message catalogue.
1229       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is a symbolic link, it is
1230              always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
1231              which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
1232              the HISTORY section below.
1235       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable  is  not
1236              set,  some mode arguments (for example +a+x) which are not valid
1237              in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.
1240       Other predicates
1241              The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group,  -links,  -mtime,
1242              -nogroup,  -nouser,  -print,  -prune,  -size,  -user  and  -xdev
1243              `-atime',  `-ctime',  `-depth',  `-group',  `-links',  `-mtime',
1244              `-nogroup',  `-nouser',  `-perm',  `-print',  `-prune', `-size',
1245              `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.
1248       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
1249       `and' and `or' operators ( -a, -o).
1251       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions
1252       beyond the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique  to
1253       GNU find, however.
1255       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:
1257              The  find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
1258              a previously visited directory that is an ancestor of  the  last
1259              file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
1260              write a diagnostic message to standard error  and  shall  either
1261              recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.
1263       GNU  find complies with these requirements.  The link count of directo‐
1264       ries which contain entries which are hard links  to  an  ancestor  will
1265       often  be  lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean that GNU
1266       find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory  which
1267       is  actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter
1268       such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic  mes‐
1269       sage.   Although  this  behaviour  may  be  somewhat  confusing,  it is
1270       unlikely that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the  leaf
1271       optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will
1272       always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued  where  it
1273       is  appropriate.   Symbolic  links  cannot be used to create filesystem
1274       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a
1275       diagnostic  message  is  issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic
1276       links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will
1277       often  mean  that  find  knows  that  it doesn't need to call stat() or
1278       chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is frequently not nec‐
1279       essary.
1281       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
1282       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.
1284       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the  behaviour
1285       of  the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in
1286       the POSIX standard.


1289       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
1290              that are unset or null.
1293       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
1294              the other internationalization variables.
1297       LC_COLLATE
1298              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat‐
1299              tern  matching  to be used for the -name option.   GNU find uses
1300              the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
1301              depends on the system library.    This variable also affects the
1302              interpretation of the response to -ok; while  the  `LC_MESSAGES'
1303              variable  selects  the  actual  pattern  used  to  interpret the
1304              response to -ok, the interpretation of any  bracket  expressions
1305              in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.
1308       LC_CTYPE
1309              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in
1310              regular expressions and also with the -name test,  if  the  sys‐
1311              tem's  fnmatch(3) library function supports this.  This variable
1312              also affects the interpretation of any character classes in  the
1313              regular expressions used to interpret the response to the prompt
1314              issued by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment  variable  will  also
1315              affect  which  characters  are considered to be unprintable when
1316              filenames are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.
1319       LC_MESSAGES
1320              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
1321              If  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also
1322              determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
1323              by the -ok action.
1326       NLSPATH
1327              Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat‐
1328              alogues.
1331       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched to find the  executa‐
1332              bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.
1336              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_COR‐
1337              RECT is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they  are
1338              units of 1024 bytes.
1340              Setting  this variable also turns off warning messages (that is,
1341              implies -nowarn) by default, because POSIX requires  that  apart
1342              from  the  output  for  -ok,  all messages printed on stderr are
1343              diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.
1345              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
1346              -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is  not  a  valid  symbolic  mode.   When
1347              POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.
1349              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made  by
1350              the  -ok action is interpreted according to the system's message
1351              catalogue, as opposed to according to find's own message  trans‐
1352              lations.
1355       TZ     Affects  the  time zone used for some of the time-related format
1356              directives of -printf and -fprintf.


1359       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f
1361       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and  delete  them.
1362       Note  that  this  will work incorrectly if there are any filenames con‐
1363       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.
1365       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f
1367       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and  delete  them,
1368       processing  filenames  in  such a way that file or directory names con‐
1369       taining single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly  han‐
1370       dled.   The  -name  test  comes before the -type test in order to avoid
1371       having to call stat(2) on every file.
1374       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;
1376       Runs `file' on every file in or below the  current  directory.   Notice
1377       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
1378       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is similarly
1379       protected  by  the  use of a backslash, though single quotes could have
1380       been used in that case also.
1383       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
1384       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)
1386       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
1387       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.
1390       find $HOME -mtime 0
1392       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
1393       last twenty-four hours.  This command works this way because  the  time
1394       since  each  file  was  last  modified  is  divided by 24 hours and any
1395       remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
1396       have  to  have  a  modification in the past which is less than 24 hours
1397       ago.
1400       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print
1402       Search for files which are executable but not readable.
1405       find . -perm 664
1407       Search for files which have read and write permission for their  owner,
1408       and  group,  but  which  other  users can read but not write to.  Files
1409       which meet these criteria but have  other  permissions  bits  set  (for
1410       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.
1413       find . -perm -664
1415       Search  for  files which have read and write permission for their owner
1416       and group, and which other users can read, without regard to the  pres‐
1417       ence  of  any  extra  permission bits (for example the executable bit).
1418       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.
1421       find . -perm /222
1423       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or  their
1424       group, or anybody else).
1427       find . -perm /220
1428       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
1429       find . -perm /u=w,g=w
1431       All  three  of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses
1432       the octal representation of the file mode, and the other  two  use  the
1433       symbolic  form.  These commands all search for files which are writable
1434       by either their owner or their group.   The  files  don't  have  to  be
1435       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.
1438       find . -perm -220
1439       find . -perm -g+w,u+w
1441       Both  these  commands  do  the  same  thing; search for files which are
1442       writable by both their owner and their group.
1445       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
1446       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x
1448       These two commands both search for files that are readable  for  every‐
1449       body  (  -perm  -444  or -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit set (
1450       -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( !  -perm
1451       /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).
1454       cd /source-dir
1455       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
1456       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir
1458       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
1459       files and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It  also
1460       omits  files  or  directories  whose name ends in ~, but not their con‐
1461       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
1462       idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
1463       to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true,  so  the
1464       following  -o  ensures  that  the right hand side is evaluated only for
1465       those directories which didn't get pruned (the contents of  the  pruned
1466       directories  are  not  even visited, so their contents are irrelevant).
1467       The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses  only
1468       for  clarity.   It  emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only
1469       for things that didn't  have  -prune  applied  to  them.   Because  the
1470       default  `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o, this
1471       is the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what  is  going
1472       on.
1475       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn -o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
1476       -print -prune
1478       Given  the  following  directory  of  projects and their associated SCM
1479       administrative  directories,  perform  an  efficient  search  for   the
1480       projects' roots:
1482       repo/project1/CVS
1483       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
1484       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
1485       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
1486       repo/project4/.git
1488       In  this  example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories
1489       that have already  been  discovered  (for  example  we  do  not  search
1490       project3/src  because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures sib‐
1491       ling directories (project2 and project3) are found.


1495       find exits with status 0  if  all  files  are  processed  successfully,
1496       greater  than  0  if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
1497       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
1498       on the correctness of the results of find.


1502       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3),
1503       regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),
1504       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).


1507       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for exam‐
1508       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading `.',  because  IEEE
1509       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.
1511       The syntax -perm +MODE was deprecated in findutils-4.2.21, in favour of
1512       -perm /MODE.  As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches  all  files
1513       instead of none.
1515       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.
1517       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
1518       nonzero value when it fails.  However, find will not exit  immediately.
1519       Previously,  find's  exit  status  was  unaffected  by  the  failure of
1520       -delete.
1522       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
1523       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
1524       -D                     4.3.1
1525       -O                     4.3.1
1526       -readable              4.3.0
1527       -writable              4.3.0
1528       -executable            4.3.0
1529       -regextype             4.2.24
1530       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
1531       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
1532       -okdir                 4.2.12
1533       -samefile              4.2.11
1534       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
1535       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
1536       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
1537       -delete                4.2.3
1538       -quit                  4.2.3
1539       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
1540       -wholename             4.2.0
1541       -iwholename            4.2.0
1542       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
1543       -fls                   4.0
1544       -ilname                3.8
1545       -iname                 3.8
1546       -ipath                 3.8
1547       -iregex                3.8


1550       $ find . -name *.c -print
1551       find: paths must precede expression
1552       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]
1554       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the  shell  resulting  in
1555       find actually receiving a command line like this:
1557       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print
1559       That  command  is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things
1560       this way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the  wild‐
1561       card:
1562       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
1563       $ find . -name \*.c -print


1567       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX
1568       standard specifies for find, which  therefore  cannot  be  fixed.   For
1569       example,  the  -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should
1570       be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.
1572       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.
1574       The best way to report a bug  is  to  use  the  form  at  http://savan
1575       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason  for  this is that you
1576       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com‐
1577       ments  about  find(1) and about the findutils package in general can be
1578       sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list,  send  email
1579       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.
1583                                                                       FIND(1)