1pdsh(1)                     General Commands Manual                    pdsh(1)


6       pdsh - issue commands to groups of hosts in parallel


10       pdsh [options]... command


14       pdsh is a variant of the rsh(1) command. Unlike rsh(1), which runs com‐
15       mands on a single remote host, pdsh can run multiple remote commands in
16       parallel.  pdsh  uses a "sliding window" (or fanout) of threads to con‐
17       serve resources on the initiating host while allowing some  connections
18       to time out.
20       When  pdsh  receives  SIGINT  (ctrl-C),  it lists the status of current
21       threads. A second SIGINT within  one  second  terminates  the  program.
22       Pending  threads may be canceled by issuing ctrl-Z within one second of
23       ctrl-C.  Pending threads are those that have not yet been initiated, or
24       are still in the process of connecting to the remote host.
27       If  a  remote  command  is not specified on the command line, pdsh runs
28       interactively, prompting for commands and executing  them  when  termi‐
29       nated  with  a  carriage return. In interactive mode, target nodes that
30       time out on the first command are not  contacted  for  subsequent  com‐
31       mands, and commands prefixed with an exclamation point will be executed
32       on the local system.
34       The core functionality of pdsh may be supplemented by dynamically load‐
35       able  modules.  The  modules  may  provide  a  new  connection protocol
36       (replacing the standard rcmd(3) protocol  used  by  rsh(1)),  filtering
37       options  (e.g.  removing  hosts  that are "down" from the target list),
38       and/or host selection options (e.g., -a selects all hosts from  a  con‐
39       figuration  file.). By default, pdsh must have at least one "rcmd" mod‐
40       ule loaded. See the RCMD MODULES section for more information.


44       The method by which pdsh runs commands on remote hosts may be  selected
45       at runtime using the -R option (See OPTIONS below).  This functionality
46       is ultimately implemented via dynamically loadable modules, and so  the
47       list of available options may be different from installation to instal‐
48       lation. A list of currently available  rcmd  modules  is  printed  when
49       using  any  of  the -h, -V, or -L options. The default rcmd module will
50       also be displayed with the -h and -V options.
52       A list of rcmd modules currently distributed with pdsh follows.
54       rsh     Uses an internal, thread-safe implementation of BSD rcmd(3)  to
55               run commands using the standard rsh(1) protocol.
57       exec    Executes  an  arbitrary command for each target host. The first
58               of the pdsh remote arguments is the local command  to  execute,
59               followed  by  any further arguments. Some simple parameters are
60               substitued on the command line, including  %h  for  the  target
61               hostname,  %u  for  the  remote username, and %n for the remote
62               rank [0-n] (To get a literal % use %%).  For example, the  fol‐
63               lowing  would duplicate using the ssh module to run hostname(1)
64               across the hosts foo[0-10]:
66                  pdsh -R exec -w foo[0-10] ssh -x -l %u %h hostname
68               and this command line would run grep(1) in parallel across  the
69               files console.foo[0-10]:
71                  pdsh -R exec -w foo[0-10] grep BUG console.%h
74       ssh     Uses a variant of popen(3) to run multiple copies of the ssh(1)
75               command.
77       mrsh    This module uses the mrsh(1) protocol to execute jobs on remote
78               hosts.   The  mrsh protocol uses a credential based authentica‐
79               tion, forgoing the need to allocate reserved  ports.  In  other
80               aspects,  it  acts  just like rsh. Remote nodes must be running
81               mrshd(8) in order for the mrsh module to work.
83       krb4    The krb4 module allows users to execute remote  commands  after
84               authenticating  with  kerberos. Of course, the remote rshd dae‐
85               mons must be kerberized.
87       xcpu    The xcpu module uses the xcpu service to  execute  remote  com‐
88               mands.


92       The list of available options is determined at runtime by supplementing
93       the list of standard pdsh options with any options provided  by  loaded
94       rcmd  and misc modules.  In some cases, options provided by modules may
95       conflict with each other. In these cases, the modules are  incompatible
96       and the first module loaded wins.

Standard target nodelist options

100       -w TARGETS,...
101              Target  and  or  filter  the specified list of hosts. Do not use
102              with any other node selection options (e.g. -a, -g, if they  are
103              available).  No  spaces are allowed in the comma-separated list.
104              Arguments in the TARGETS list may include normal host  names,  a
105              range of hosts in hostlist format (See HOSTLIST EXPRESSIONS), or
106              a single `-' character to read the list of hosts on stdin.
108              If a host or hostlist is  preceded  by  a  `-'  character,  this
109              causes those hosts to be explicitly excluded. If the argument is
110              preceded by a single `^' character, it is taken to be  the  path
111              to  file  containing  a list of hosts, one per line. If the item
112              begins with a `/' character, it is taken  as a  regular  expres‐
113              sion  on which to filter the list of hosts (a regex argument may
114              also be optionally trailed by another '/',  e.g.   /node.*/).  A
115              regex or file name argument may also be preceeded by a minus `-'
116              to exclude instead of include thoses hosts.
118              A list of hosts may also be preceded by  "user@"  to  specify  a
119              remote username other than the default, or "rcmd_type:" to spec‐
120              ify an alternate rcmd connection type for these hosts. When used
121              together,   the   rcmd   type  must  be  specified  first,  e.g.
122              "ssh:user1@host0" would use ssh to  connect  to  host0  as  user
123              "user1."
127       -x host,host,...
128              Exclude  the  specified  hosts.  May be specified in conjunction
129              with other target node list options such  as  -a  and  -g  (when
130              available).  Hostlists  may  also  be specified to the -x option
131              (see the HOSTLIST EXPRESSIONS section below).  Arguments  to  -x
132              may  also  be  preceeded  by  the filename (`^') and regex ('/')
133              characters as described above, in which case the resulting hosts
134              are  excluded as if they had been given to -w and preceeded with
135              the minus `-' character.

Standard pdsh options

139       -S     Return the largest of the remote command return values.
141       -h     Output usage menu and quit. A list  of  available  rcmd  modules
142              will also be printed at the end of the usage message.
144       -s     Only  on AIX, separate remote command stderr and stdout into two
145              sockets.
147       -q     List option values and the  target  nodelist  and  exit  without
148              action.
150       -b     Disable ctrl-C status feature so that a single ctrl-C kills par‐
151              allel job. (Batch Mode)
153       -l user
154              This option may be used to run remote commands as another  user,
155              subject  to authorization. For BSD rcmd, this means the invoking
156              user and system must be listed in the user´s .rhosts file  (even
157              for root).
159       -t seconds
160              Set the connect timeout. Default is 10 seconds.  This option may
161              also be set via the PDSH_CONNECT_TIMEOUT environment variable.
163       -u seconds
164              Set a limit on the amount of time a remote command is allowed to
165              execute.   Default is no limit. See note in LIMITATIONS if using
166              -u with ssh.  This option may also  be  set  via  the  PDSH_COM‐
167              MAND_TIMEOUT environment variable.
169       -f number
170              Set  the  maximum number of simultaneous remote commands to num‐
171              ber.  The default is 32.
173       -R name
174              Set rcmd module to name. This option may also  be  set  via  the
175              PDSH_RCMD_TYPE  environment  variable.  A list of available rcmd
176              modules may be obtained via the -h,  -V,  or  -L  options.   The
177              default will be listed with -h or -V.
179       -M name,...
180              When multiple misc modules provide the same options to pdsh, the
181              first module initialized "wins" and subsequent modules  are  not
182              loaded.   The -M option allows a list of modules to be specified
183              that will be  force-initialized  before  all  others,  in-effect
184              ensuring  that  they load without conflict (unless they conflict
185              with  eachother).  This  option  may  also  be   set   via   the
186              PDSH_MISC_MODULES environment variable.
188       -L     List info on all loaded pdsh modules and quit.
190       -N     Disable hostname: prefix on lines of output.
192       -d     Include more complete thread status when SIGINT is received, and
193              display connect and command time statistics on stderr when done.
195       -V     Output pdsh version information, along with  list  of  currently
196              loaded modules, and exit.

machines module options

200       -a     Target all nodes from machines file.

genders module options

204       In  addition  to  the  genders  options  presented  below,  the genders
205       attribute pdsh_rcmd_type may also be used in the  genders  database  to
206       specify  an alternate rcmd connect type than the pdsh default for hosts
207       with this attribute. For example, the following  line  in  the  genders
208       file
210         host0 pdsh_rcmd_type=ssh
212       would  cause  pdsh to use ssh to connect to host0, even if rsh were the
213       default.   This  can  be  overridden  on  the  commandline   with   the
214       "rcmd_type:host0" syntax.
217       -A     Target  all nodes in genders database. The -A option will target
218              every host listed in genders -- if you want to omit  some  hosts
219              by default, see the -a option below.
221       -a     Target  all  nodes  in  genders  database  except those with the
222              "pdsh_all_skip" attribute. This is shorthand for  running  "pdsh
223              -A -X pdsh_all_skip ..."
225       -g attr[=val][,attr[=val],...]
226              Target  nodes that match any of the specified genders attributes
227              (with optional values). Conflicts with the -a option. If used in
228              combination  with  other  node selection options like -w, the -g
229              option will select from the supplied node list, instead of  from
230              the  genders file as a whole. Otherwise, This option targets the
231              alternate hostnames in the genders database by default.  The  -i
232              option  provided  by the genders module may be used to translate
233              these to the canonical genders hostnames. If the installed  ver‐
234              sion  of genders supports it, attributes supplied to -g may also
235              take the form of genders queries. Genders queries will query the
236              genders  database  for  the  union, intersection, difference, or
237              complement of genders attributes and values.  The set  operation
238              union is represented by two pipe symbols ('||'), intersection by
239              two ampersand symbols ('&&'), difference by  two  minus  symbols
240              ('--'),  and  complement  by  a tilde ('~').  Parentheses may be
241              used to change the order of operations. See the nodeattr(1) man‐
242              page for examples of genders queries.
244       -X attr[=val][,attr[=val],...]
245              Exclude nodes that match any of the specified genders attributes
246              (optionally with values).  This option may be used  in  combina‐
247              tion  with any other of the node selection options (e.g. -w, -g,
248              -a, -X may also take the form of  genders  queries.  Please  see
249              documentation  for  the  genders  -g option for more information
250              about genders queries.
252       -i     Request translation between canonical and alternate hostnames.
254       -F filename
255              Read genders information from filename  instead  of  the  system
256              default  genders  file.  If filename doesn't specify an absolute
257              path then it is taken to be relative to the directory  specified
258              by  the PDSH_GENDERS_DIR environment variable (/etc by default).
259              An  alternate  genders  file  may  also  be  specified  via  the
260              PDSH_GENDERS_FILE environment variable.

nodeupdown module options

264       -v     Eliminate  target nodes that are considered "down" by libnodeup‐
265              down.

slurm module options

269       The slurm module allows pdsh to target nodes based on currently running
270       SLURM  jobs.  The slurm module is typically called after all other node
271       selection options have been  processed,  and  if  no  nodes  have  been
272       selected,  the  module  will  attempt  to read a running jobid from the
273       SLURM_JOBID environment variable (which is set  when  running  under  a
274       SLURM allocation). If SLURM_JOBID references an invalid job, it will be
275       silently ignored.
277       -j jobid[,jobid,...]
278              Target list of nodes allocated to  the  SLURM  job  jobid.  This
279              option may be used multiple times to target multiple SLURM jobs.
280              The special argument "all" can be used to target all nodes  run‐
281              ning SLURM jobs, e.g.  -j all.
283       -P partition[,partition,...]
284              Target  list  of  nodes containing in the SLURM partition parti‐
285              tion.  This option may be used multiple times to target multiple
286              SLURM  partitions  and/or  partitions  may  be given in a comma-
287              delimited list.

torque module options

291       The torque module allows pdsh to target nodes based on  currently  run‐
292       ning Torque/PBS jobs. Similar to the slurm module, the torque module is
293       typically called after all other node selection options have been  pro‐
294       cessed,  and if no nodes have been selected, the module will attempt to
295       read a running jobid from the PBS_JOBID environment variable (which  is
296       set when running under a Torque allocation).
298       -j jobid[,jobid,...]
299              Target  list  of  nodes  allocated to the Torque job jobid. This
300              option may be used multiple  times  to  target  multiple  Torque
301              jobs.

dshgroup module options

305       The  dshgroup  module  allows pdsh to use dsh (or Dancer's shell) style
306       group files from /etc/dsh/group/ or ~/.dsh/group/. The  default  search
307       path  may  be overridden with the DSHGROUP_PATH environment variable, a
308       colon-separated list of directories to search. The  default  value  for
309       DSHGROUP_PATH is /etc/dsh/group.
311       -g groupname,...
312              Target  nodes  in  dsh  group  file  "groupname" found in either
313              ~/.dsh/group/groupname or /etc/dsh/group/groupname.
315       -X groupname,...
316              Exclude nodes in dsh group file "groupname."
318       As an enhancement in pdsh, dshgroup files may optionally include  other
319       dshgroup  files  via a special #include STRING syntax.  The argument to
320       #include may be either a file path, or a group name, in which case  the
321       path  used to search for the group file is the same as if the group had
322       been specified to -g.

netgroup module options

326       The netgroup module allows pdsh to use  standard  netgroup  entries  to
327       build lists of target hosts. (/etc/netgroup or NIS)
329       -g groupname,...
330              Target nodes in netgroup "groupname."
332       -X groupname,...
333              Exclude nodes in netgroup "groupname."


337       PDSH_RCMD_TYPE
338              Equivalent to the -R option, the value of this environment vari‐
339              able will be used to set the default rcmd module for pdsh to use
340              (e.g. ssh, rsh).
342       PDSH_SSH_ARGS
343              Override  the  standard arguments that pdsh passes to the ssh(1)
344              command ("-2 -a -x -l%u %h"). The use of the parameters %u,  %h,
345              and  %n  (as  documented  in  the  rcmd/exec  section  above) is
346              optional. If these parameters are missing, pdsh will append them
347              to the ssh commandline because it is assumed they are mandatory.
350              Append additional options to the ssh(1) command invoked by pdsh.
351              For example, PDSH_SSH_ARGS_APPEND="-q" would run  ssh  in  quiet
352              mode,  or "-v" would increase the verbosity of ssh. (Note: these
353              arguments are actually  prepended  to  the  ssh  commandline  to
354              ensure they appear before any target hostname argument to ssh.)
356       WCOLL  If no other node selection option is used, the WCOLL environment
357              variable may be set to a filename from which a  list  of  target
358              hosts will be read. The file should contain a list of hosts, one
359              per line (though each line may contain  a  hostlist  expression.
360              See HOSTLIST EXPRESSIONS section below).
362       DSHPATH
363              If  set,  the  path  in DSHPATH will be used as the PATH for the
364              remote processes.
366       FANOUT Set the pdsh fanout (See description of -f above).


370       As noted in sections above pdsh accepts  lists  of  hosts  the  general
371       form:  prefix[n-m,l-k,...], where n < m and l < k, etc., as an alterna‐
372       tive to explicit lists of hosts. This form should not be confused  with
373       regular  expression  character  classes  (also  denoted by ``[]''). For
374       example, foo[19] does not represent  an  expression  matching  foo1  or
375       foo9, but rather represents the degenerate hostlist: foo19.
377       The  hostlist  syntax is meant only as a convenience on clusters with a
378       "prefixNNN" naming convention and specification of ranges should not be
379       considered  necessary -- the list foo1,foo9 could be specified as such,
380       or by the hostlist foo[1,9].
382       Some examples of usage follow:
385       Run command on foo01,foo02,...,foo05
386           pdsh -w foo[01-05] command
388       Run command on foo7,foo9,foo10
389            pdsh -w foo[7,9-10] command
391       Run command on foo0,foo4,foo5
392            pdsh -w foo[0-5] -x foo[1-3] command
395       A suffix on the hostname is also supported:
398       Run command on foo0-eth0,foo1-eth0,foo2-eth0,foo3-eth0
399          pdsh -w foo[0-3]-eth0 command
402       As a reminder to the reader, some shells will interpret  brackets  ('['
403       and ']') for pattern matching.  Depending on your shell, it may be nec‐
404       essary to enclose ranged lists within quotes.  For  example,  in  tcsh,
405       the first example above should be executed as:
407            pdsh -w "foo[01-05]" command


411       Originally a rewrite of IBM dsh(1) by Jim Garlick <garlick@llnl.gov> on
412       LLNL's ASCI Blue-Pacific IBM SP system. It is now used on  Linux  clus‐
413       ters at LLNL.


417       When  using  ssh  for  remote execution, expect the stderr of ssh to be
418       folded in with that of the remote command. When invoked by pdsh, it  is
419       not  possible  for ssh to prompt for passwords if RSA/DSA keys are con‐
420       figured properly, etc..  For ssh implementations that suppport  a  con‐
421       nect  timeout  option,  pdsh attempts to use that option to enforce the
422       timeout (e.g. -oConnectTimeout=T for OpenSSH), otherwise connect  time‐
423       outs  are  not supported when using ssh.  Finally, there is no reliable
424       way for pdsh to ensure that remote  commands  are  actually  terminated
425       when  using a command timeout. Thus if -u is used with ssh commands may
426       be left running on remote hosts even after timeout has killed local ssh
427       processes.
429       The number of nodes that pdsh can simultaneously execute remote jobs on
430       is limited by the maximum number of threads that can be created concur‐
431       rently,  as  well as the availability of reserved ports in the rsh mod‐
432       ule. On systems that implement Posix threads, the  limit  is  typically
433       defined by the constant PTHREADS_THREADS_MAX.



438       rsh(1), ssh(1), dshbak(1), pdcp(1)
442                                   linux-gnu                           pdsh(1)