1GITREVISIONS(7)                   Git Manual                   GITREVISIONS(7)


6       gitrevisions - Specifying revisions and ranges for Git


9       gitrevisions


12       Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
13       the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which walk
14       the revision graph (such as git-log(1)), all commits which are
15       reachable from that commit. For commands that walk the revision graph
16       one can also specify a range of revisions explicitly.
18       In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1)) also take revision
19       parameters which denote other objects than commits, e.g. blobs
20       ("files") or trees ("directories of files").


23       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
24       commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here
25       are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
26       this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.
28           Note
29           This document shows the "raw" syntax as seen by git. The shell and
30           other UIs might require additional quoting to protect special
31           characters and to avoid word splitting.
33       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
34           The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
35           leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
36           dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
37           same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
38           whose object name starts with dae86e.
40       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
41           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
42           by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
43           abbreviated object name.
45       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
46           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
47           referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
48           heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
49           to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <refname> is
50           disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:
52            1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is
53               usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
54               and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);
56            2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;
58            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;
60            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;
62            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;
64            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.
66               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the
67               working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched
68               from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.
69               ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a
70               drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their
71               operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch
72               back to the state before you ran them.  MERGE_HEAD records the
73               commit(s) which you are merging into your branch when you run
74               git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
75               cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.
77               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
78               the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
79               file. While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
80               preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in
81               UTF-8.
83       @
84           @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.
86       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
87           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
88           in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
89           1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
90           ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
91           immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
92           log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
93           your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
94           branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
95           certain times, see --since and --until.
97       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
98           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
99           enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior
100           value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
101           value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
102           This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and
103           the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).
105       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
106           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
107           reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
108           branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.
110       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
111           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
112           before the current one.
114       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
115           The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form
116           <branchname>@{u}) refers to the branch that the branch specified by
117           branchname is set to build on top of (configured with
118           branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge). A missing branchname
119           defaults to the current one. These suffixes are also accepted when
120           spelled in uppercase, and they mean the same thing no matter the
121           case.
123       <branchname>@{push}, e.g. master@{push}, @{push}
124           The suffix @{push} reports the branch "where we would push to" if
125           git push were run while branchname was checked out (or the current
126           HEAD if no branchname is specified). Since our push destination is
127           in a remote repository, of course, we report the local tracking
128           branch that corresponds to that branch (i.e., something in
129           refs/remotes/).
131           Here’s an example to make it more clear:
133               $ git config push.default current
134               $ git config remote.pushdefault myfork
135               $ git checkout -b mybranch origin/master
137               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{upstream}
138               refs/remotes/origin/master
140               $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{push}
141               refs/remotes/myfork/mybranch
143           Note in the example that we set up a triangular workflow, where we
144           pull from one location and push to another. In a non-triangular
145           workflow, @{push} is the same as @{upstream}, and there is no need
146           for it.
148           This suffix is also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and means
149           the same thing no matter the case.
151       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
152           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
153           commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
154           equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit
155           itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object
156           that refers to a commit object.
158       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
159           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
160           is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named commit object,
161           following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
162           <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
163           illustration of the usage of this form.
165       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
166           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
167           means dereference the object at <rev> recursively until an object
168           of type <type> is found or the object cannot be dereferenced
169           anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
170           commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit
171           object. Similarly, if <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes
172           the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is a short-hand for
173           <rev>^{commit}.
175           rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that
176           exists, without requiring rev to be a tag, and without
177           dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an object, it does not
178           have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.
180           rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing tag
181           object.
183       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
184           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could
185           be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
186           object is found.
188       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
189           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that
190           contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug
191           syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching commit
192           which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.
194       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
195           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
196           whose commit message matches the specified regular expression. This
197           name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
198           any ref. The regular expression can match any part of the commit
199           message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use e.g.
200           :/^foo. The special sequence :/!  is reserved for modifiers to what
201           is matched.  :/!-foo performs a negative match, while :/!!foo
202           matches a literal !  character, followed by foo. Any other sequence
203           beginning with :/!  is reserved for now. Depending on the given
204           text, the shell’s word splitting rules might require additional
205           quoting.
207       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
208           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
209           path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
210           :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
211           the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
212           given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
213           current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
214           relative to the working tree’s root directory. This is most useful
215           to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same
216           tree structure as the working tree.
218       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
219           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
220           colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at the
221           given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
222           names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
223           ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch’s version (typically the
224           current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
225           is being merged.
227       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
228       parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.
230           G   H   I   J
231            \ /     \ /
232             D   E   F
233              \  |  / \
234               \ | /   |
235                \|/    |
236                 B     C
237                  \   /
238                   \ /
239                    A
241           A =      = A^0
242           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
243           C = A^2  = A^2
244           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
245           E = B^2  = A^^2
246           F = B^3  = A^^3
247           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
248           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
249           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
250           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2


253       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
254       commits, not just a single commit.
256       For these commands, specifying a single revision, using the notation
257       described in the previous section, means the set of commits reachable
258       from the given commit.
260       A commit’s reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in its
261       ancestry chain.
263   Commit Exclusions
264       ^<rev> (caret) Notation
265           To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is
266           used. E.g.  ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the
267           ones reachable from r1 (i.e.  r1 and its ancestors).
269   Dotted Range Notations
270       The .. (two-dot) Range Notation
271           The ^r1 r2 set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
272           for it. When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the
273           syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for
274           commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are
275           reachable from r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.
277       The ... (three-dot) Symmetric Difference Notation
278           A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and
279           r2 and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It
280           is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1
281           (left side) or r2 (right side) but not from both.
283       In these two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it
284       default to HEAD. For example, origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD
285       and asks "What did I do since I forked from the origin branch?"
286       Similarly, ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did
287       the origin do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would mean
288       HEAD..HEAD which is an empty range that is both reachable and
289       unreachable from HEAD.
291   Other <rev>^ Parent Shorthand Notations
292       Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
293       for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits.
295       The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
297       The r1^! notation includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.
298       By itself, this notation denotes the single commit r1.
300       The <rev>^-<n> notation includes <rev> but excludes the <n>th parent
301       (i.e. a shorthand for <rev>^<n>..<rev>), with <n> = 1 if not given.
302       This is typically useful for merge commits where you can just pass
303       <commit>^- to get all the commits in the branch that was merged in
304       merge commit <commit> (including <commit> itself).
306       While <rev>^<n> was about specifying a single commit parent, these
307       three notations also consider its parents. For example you can say
308       HEAD^2^@, however you cannot say HEAD^@^2.


311       <rev>
312           Include commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
313           ancestors).
315       ^<rev>
316           Exclude commits that are reachable from <rev> (i.e. <rev> and its
317           ancestors).
319       <rev1>..<rev2>
320           Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those
321           that are reachable from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is
322           omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
324       <rev1>...<rev2>
325           Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but
326           exclude those that are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or
327           <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
329       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
330           A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all
331           parents of <rev> (meaning, include anything reachable from its
332           parents, but not the commit itself).
334       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
335           A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving
336           commit <rev> and then all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude
337           them (and their ancestors).
339       <rev>^-<n>, e.g. HEAD^-, HEAD^-2
340           Equivalent to <rev>^<n>..<rev>, with <n> = 1 if not given.
342       Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above,
343       with each step in the notation’s expansion and selection carefully
344       spelt out:
346              Args   Expanded arguments    Selected commits
347              D                            G H D
348              D F                          G H I J D F
349              ^G D                         H D
350              ^D B                         E I J F B
351              ^D B C                       E I J F B C
352              C                            I J F C
353              B..C   = ^B C                C
354              B...C  = B ^F C              G H D E B C
355              B^-    = B^..B
356                     = ^B^1 B              E I J F B
357              C^@    = C^1
358                     = F                   I J F
359              B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
360                     = D E F               D G H E F I J
361              C^!    = C ^C^@
362                     = C ^C^1
363                     = C ^F                C
364              B^!    = B ^B^@
365                     = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
366                     = B ^D ^E ^F          B
367              F^! D  = F ^I ^J D           G H D F


370       git-rev-parse(1)


373       Part of the git(1) suite
377Git 2.18.1                        05/14/2019                   GITREVISIONS(7)